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Card-Based Zero-Knowledge Proof for Sudoku

Authors: Tatsuya Sasaki, Takaaki Mizuki, and Hideaki Sone

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 100, 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)

In 2009, Gradwohl, Naor, Pinkas, and Rothblum proposed physical zero-knowledge proof protocols for Sudoku. That is, for a puzzle instance of Sudoku, their excellent protocols allow a prover to convince a verifier that there is a solution to the Sudoku puzzle and that he/she knows it, without revealing any information about the solution. The possible drawback is that the existing protocols have a soundness error with a non-zero probability or need special cards (such as scratch-off cards). Thus, in this study, we propose new protocols to perform zero-knowledge proof for Sudoku that use a normal deck of playing cards and have no soundness error. Our protocols can be easily implemented by humans with a reasonable number of playing cards.

Cite as

Tatsuya Sasaki, Takaaki Mizuki, and Hideaki Sone. Card-Based Zero-Knowledge Proof for Sudoku. In 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 100, pp. 29:1-29:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

  author =	{Sasaki, Tatsuya and Mizuki, Takaaki and Sone, Hideaki},
  title =	{{Card-Based Zero-Knowledge Proof for Sudoku}},
  booktitle =	{9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:10},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-067-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{100},
  editor =	{Ito, Hiro and Leonardi, Stefano and Pagli, Linda and Prencipe, Giuseppe},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88207},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Zero-knowledge proof, Card-based cryptography, Sudoku}
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