2 Search Results for "Yehuda, Gal"


Document
On Low-End Obfuscation and Learning

Authors: Elette Boyle, Yuval Ishai, Pierre Meyer, Robert Robere, and Gal Yehuda

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
Most recent works on cryptographic obfuscation focus on the high-end regime of obfuscating general circuits while guaranteeing computational indistinguishability between functionally equivalent circuits. Motivated by the goals of simplicity and efficiency, we initiate a systematic study of "low-end" obfuscation, focusing on simpler representation models and information-theoretic notions of security. We obtain the following results. - Positive results via "white-box" learning. We present a general technique for obtaining perfect indistinguishability obfuscation from exact learning algorithms that are given restricted access to the representation of the input function. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by obtaining simple obfuscation for decision trees and multilinear read-k arithmetic formulas. - Negative results via PAC learning. A proper obfuscation scheme obfuscates programs from a class C by programs from the same class. Assuming the existence of one-way functions, we show that there is no proper indistinguishability obfuscation scheme for k-CNF formulas for any constant k ≥ 3; in fact, even obfuscating 3-CNF by k-CNF is impossible. This result applies even to computationally secure obfuscation, and makes an unexpected use of PAC learning in the context of negative results for obfuscation. - Separations. We study the relations between different information-theoretic notions of indistinguishability obfuscation, giving cryptographic evidence for separations between them.

Cite as

Elette Boyle, Yuval Ishai, Pierre Meyer, Robert Robere, and Gal Yehuda. On Low-End Obfuscation and Learning. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 23:1-23:28, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{boyle_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.23,
  author =	{Boyle, Elette and Ishai, Yuval and Meyer, Pierre and Robere, Robert and Yehuda, Gal},
  title =	{{On Low-End Obfuscation and Learning}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:28},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175265},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: Indistinguishability obfuscation, cryptography, learning}
}
Document
Pseudorandom Self-Reductions for NP-Complete Problems

Authors: Reyad Abed Elrazik, Robert Robere, Assaf Schuster, and Gal Yehuda

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
A language L is random-self-reducible if deciding membership in L can be reduced (in polynomial time) to deciding membership in L for uniformly random instances. It is known that several "number theoretic" languages (such as computing the permanent of a matrix) admit random self-reductions. Feigenbaum and Fortnow showed that NP-complete languages are not non-adaptively random-self-reducible unless the polynomial-time hierarchy collapses, giving suggestive evidence that NP may not admit random self-reductions. Hirahara and Santhanam introduced a weakening of random self-reductions that they called pseudorandom self-reductions, in which a language L is reduced to a distribution that is computationally indistinguishable from the uniform distribution. They then showed that the Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) admits a non-adaptive pseudorandom self-reduction, and suggested that this gave further evidence that distinguished MCSP from standard NP-Complete problems. We show that, in fact, the Clique problem admits a non-adaptive pseudorandom self-reduction, assuming the planted clique conjecture. More generally we show the following. Call a property of graphs π hereditary if G ∈ π implies H ∈ π for every induced subgraph of G. We show that for any infinite hereditary property π, the problem of finding a maximum induced subgraph H ∈ π of a given graph G admits a non-adaptive pseudorandom self-reduction.

Cite as

Reyad Abed Elrazik, Robert Robere, Assaf Schuster, and Gal Yehuda. Pseudorandom Self-Reductions for NP-Complete Problems. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 65:1-65:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{elrazik_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.65,
  author =	{Elrazik, Reyad Abed and Robere, Robert and Schuster, Assaf and Yehuda, Gal},
  title =	{{Pseudorandom Self-Reductions for NP-Complete Problems}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{65:1--65:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.65},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156615},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.65},
  annote =	{Keywords: computational complexity, pseudorandomness, worst-case to average-case, self reductions, planted clique, hereditary graph family}
}
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