A Generic Time Hierarchy for Semantic Models With One Bit of Advice

Authors Dieter van Melkebeek, Konstantin Pervyshev

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Dieter van Melkebeek
Konstantin Pervyshev

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Dieter van Melkebeek and Konstantin Pervyshev. A Generic Time Hierarchy for Semantic Models With One Bit of Advice. In Complexity of Boolean Functions. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6111, pp. 1-39, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2006)


We show that for any reasonable semantic model of computation and for any positive integer $a$ and rationals $1 leq c < d$, there exists a language computable in time $n^d$ with $a$ bits of advice but not in time $n^c$ with $a$ bits of advice. A semantic model is one for which there exists a computable enumeration that contains all machines in the model but may also contain others. We call such a model reasonable if it has an efficient universal machine that can be complemented within the model in exponential time and if it is efficiently closed under deterministic transducers. Our result implies the first such hierarchy theorem for randomized machines with zero-sided error, quantum machines with one- or zero-sided error, unambiguous machines, symmetric alternation, Arthur-Merlin games of any signature, interactive proof protocols with one or multiple provers, etc.
  • Time hierarchy
  • non-uniformity
  • one bit of advice
  • probabilistic algorithms


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