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# Hitting Sets for Orbits of Circuit Classes and Polynomial Families

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## Acknowledgements

We thank Rohit Gurjar, Ankit Garg, Neeraj Kayal, and Vishwas Bhargava for several stimulating discussions at the onset of this work.

## Cite As

Chandan Saha and Bhargav Thankey. Hitting Sets for Orbits of Circuit Classes and Polynomial Families. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 50:1-50:26, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.50

## Abstract

The orbit of an n-variate polynomial f(𝐱) over a field 𝔽 is the set {f(A𝐱+𝐛) : A ∈ GL(n,𝔽) and 𝐛 ∈ 𝔽ⁿ}. In this paper, we initiate the study of explicit hitting sets for the orbits of polynomials computable by several natural and well-studied circuit classes and polynomial families. In particular, we give quasi-polynomial time hitting sets for the orbits of: 1) Low-individual-degree polynomials computable by commutative ROABPs. This implies quasi-polynomial time hitting sets for the orbits of the elementary symmetric polynomials. 2) Multilinear polynomials computable by constant-width ROABPs. This implies a quasi-polynomial time hitting set for the orbits of the family {IMM_{3,d}}_{d ∈ ℕ}, which is complete for arithmetic formulas. 3) Polynomials computable by constant-depth, constant-occur formulas. This implies quasi-polynomial time hitting sets for the orbits of multilinear depth-4 circuits with constant top fan-in, and also polynomial-time hitting sets for the orbits of the power symmetric and the sum-product polynomials. 4) Polynomials computable by occur-once formulas.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Algebraic complexity theory
##### Keywords
• Hitting Sets
• Orbits
• ROABPs
• Rank Concentration

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