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# Understanding PPA-Completeness

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Xiaotie Deng, Jack R. Edmonds, Zhe Feng, Zhengyang Liu, Qi Qi, and Zeying Xu. Understanding PPA-Completeness. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 23:1-23:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.23

## Abstract

We consider the problem of finding a fully colored base triangle on the 2-dimensional Möbius band under the standard boundary condition, proving it to be PPA-complete. The proof is based on a construction for the DPZP problem, that of finding a zero point under a discrete version of continuity condition. It further derives PPA-completeness for versions on the Möbius band of other related discrete fixed point type problems, and a special version of the Tucker problem, finding an edge such that if the value of one end vertex is x, the other is -x, given a special anti-symmetry boundary condition. More generally, this applies to other non-orientable spaces, including the projective plane and the Klein bottle. However, since those models have a closed boundary, we rely on a version of the PPA that states it as to find another fixed point giving a fixed point. This model also makes it presentationally simple for an extension to a high dimensional discrete fixed point problem on a non-orientable (nearly) hyper-grid with a constant side length.
##### Keywords
• Fixed Point Computation
• PPA-Completeness

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