Singly Exponential Translation of Alternating Weak Büchi Automata to Unambiguous Büchi Automata

Authors Yong Li , Sven Schewe , Moshe Y. Vardi

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Author Details

Yong Li
  • University of Liverpool, UK
  • SKLCS, Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Sven Schewe
  • University of Liverpool, UK
Moshe Y. Vardi
  • Rice University, Houston, TX, USA


We thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedback.

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Yong Li, Sven Schewe, and Moshe Y. Vardi. Singly Exponential Translation of Alternating Weak Büchi Automata to Unambiguous Büchi Automata. In 34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 279, pp. 37:1-37:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


We introduce a method for translating an alternating weak Büchi automaton (AWA), which corresponds to a Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL) formula, to an unambiguous Büchi automaton (UBA). Our translations generalise constructions for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL), a less expressive specification language than LDL. In classical constructions, LTL formulas are first translated to alternating very weak automata (AVAs) - automata that have only singleton strongly connected components (SCCs); the AVAs are then handled by efficient disambiguation procedures. However, general AWAs can have larger SCCs, which complicates disambiguation. Currently, the only available disambiguation procedure has to go through an intermediate construction of nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBAs), which would incur an exponential blow-up of its own. We introduce a translation from general AWAs to UBAs with a singly exponential blow-up, which also immediately provides a singly exponential translation from LDL to UBAs. Interestingly, the complexity of our translation is smaller than the best known disambiguation algorithm for NBAs (broadly (0.53n)ⁿ vs. (0.76n)ⁿ), while the input of our construction can be exponentially more succinct.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Automata over infinite objects
  • Theory of computation → Verification by model checking
  • Büchi automata
  • unambiguous automata
  • alternation
  • weak
  • disambiguation


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