Hierarchies in independence logic

Authors Pietro Galliani, Miika Hannula, Juha Kontinen

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Pietro Galliani
Miika Hannula
Juha Kontinen

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Pietro Galliani, Miika Hannula, and Juha Kontinen. Hierarchies in independence logic. In Computer Science Logic 2013 (CSL 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 23, pp. 263-280, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)


We study the expressive power of fragments of inclusion and independence logic defined either by restricting the number of universal quantifiers or the arity of inclusion and independence atoms in formulas. Assuming the so-called lax semantics for these logics, we relate these fragments of inclusion and independence logic to familiar sublogics of existential second-order logic. We also show that, with respect to the stronger strict semantics, inclusion logic is equivalent to existential second-order logic.
  • Existential second-order logic
  • Independence logic
  • Inclusion logic
  • Expressiveness hierarchies


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