Descriptive Complexity for Neural Networks via Boolean Networks

Authors Veeti Ahvonen , Damian Heiman , Antti Kuusisto

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Veeti Ahvonen
  • Tampere University, Finland
Damian Heiman
  • Tampere University, Finland
Antti Kuusisto
  • Tampere University, Finland

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Veeti Ahvonen, Damian Heiman, and Antti Kuusisto. Descriptive Complexity for Neural Networks via Boolean Networks. In 32nd EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 288, pp. 9:1-9:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


We investigate the descriptive complexity of a class of neural networks with unrestricted topologies and piecewise polynomial activation functions. We consider the general scenario where the running time is unlimited and floating-point numbers are used for simulating reals. We characterize these neural networks with a rule-based logic for Boolean networks. In particular, we show that the sizes of the neural networks and the corresponding Boolean rule formulae are polynomially related. In fact, in the direction from Boolean rules to neural networks, the blow-up is only linear. We also analyze the delays in running times due to the translations. In the translation from neural networks to Boolean rules, the time delay is polylogarithmic in the neural network size and linear in time. In the converse translation, the time delay is linear in both factors. We also obtain translations between the rule-based logic for Boolean networks, the diamond-free fragment of modal substitution calculus and a class of recursive Boolean circuits where the number of input and output gates match.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Computing methodologies → Neural networks
  • Theory of computation → Finite Model Theory
  • Mathematics of computing → Numerical analysis
  • Computer systems organization → Parallel architectures
  • Descriptive complexity
  • neural networks
  • Boolean networks
  • floating-point arithmetic
  • logic


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