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Classification of Distributed Binary Labeling Problems

Authors Alkida Balliu , Sebastian Brandt , Yuval Efron , Juho Hirvonen , Yannic Maus , Dennis Olivetti , Jukka Suomela



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Author Details

Alkida Balliu
  • Freiburg University, Germany
Sebastian Brandt
  • ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Yuval Efron
  • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Juho Hirvonen
  • Aalto University, Finland
Yannic Maus
  • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Dennis Olivetti
  • Freiburg University, Germany
Jukka Suomela
  • Aalto University, Finland

Acknowledgements

We thank Jan Studený and anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on earlier versions of this work.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Alkida Balliu, Sebastian Brandt, Yuval Efron, Juho Hirvonen, Yannic Maus, Dennis Olivetti, and Jukka Suomela. Classification of Distributed Binary Labeling Problems. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 17:1-17:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.17

Abstract

We present a complete classification of the deterministic distributed time complexity for a family of graph problems: binary labeling problems in trees. These are locally checkable problems that can be encoded with an alphabet of size two in the edge labeling formalism. Examples of binary labeling problems include sinkless orientation, sinkless and sourceless orientation, 2-vertex coloring, perfect matching, and the task of coloring edges red and blue such that all nodes are incident to at least one red and at least one blue edge. More generally, we can encode e.g. any cardinality constraints on indegrees and outdegrees. We study the deterministic time complexity of solving a given binary labeling problem in trees, in the usual LOCAL model of distributed computing. We show that the complexity of any such problem is in one of the following classes: O(1), Θ(log n), Θ(n), or unsolvable. In particular, a problem that can be represented in the binary labeling formalism cannot have time complexity Θ(log^* n), and hence we know that e.g. any encoding of maximal matchings has to use at least three labels (which is tight). Furthermore, given the description of any binary labeling problem, we can easily determine in which of the four classes it is and what is an asymptotically optimal algorithm for solving it. Hence the distributed time complexity of binary labeling problems is decidable, not only in principle, but also in practice: there is a simple and efficient algorithm that takes the description of a binary labeling problem and outputs its distributed time complexity.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Distributed computing models
  • Theory of computation → Complexity classes
Keywords
  • LOCAL model
  • graph problems
  • locally checkable labeling problems
  • distributed computational complexity

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References

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