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Brief Announcement: Distributed Quantum Interactive Proofs

Authors François Le Gall, Masayuki Miyamoto, Harumichi Nishimura

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François Le Gall
  • Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Japan
Masayuki Miyamoto
  • Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Japan
Harumichi Nishimura
  • Graduate School of Informatics, Nagoya University, Japan

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François Le Gall, Masayuki Miyamoto, and Harumichi Nishimura. Brief Announcement: Distributed Quantum Interactive Proofs. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 48:1-48:3, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


The study of distributed interactive proofs was initiated by Kol, Oshman, and Saxena [PODC 2018] as a generalization of distributed decision mechanisms (proof-labeling schemes, etc.), and has received a lot of attention in recent years. In distributed interactive proofs, the nodes of an n-node network G can exchange short messages (called certificates) with a powerful prover. The goal is to decide if the input (including G itself) belongs to some language, with as few turns of interaction and as few bits exchanged between nodes and the prover as possible. There are several results showing that the size of certificates can be reduced drastically with a constant number of interactions compared to non-interactive distributed proofs. In this brief announcement, we introduce the quantum counterpart of distributed interactive proofs: certificates can now be quantum bits, and the nodes of the network can perform quantum computation. The main result of this paper shows that by using quantum distributed interactive proofs, the number of interactions can be significantly reduced. More precisely, our main result shows that for any constant k, the class of languages that can be decided by a k-turn classical (i.e., non-quantum) distributed interactive protocol with f(n)-bit certificate size is contained in the class of languages that can be decided by a 5-turn distributed quantum interactive protocol with O(f(n))-bit certificate size. We also show that if we allow to use shared randomness, the number of turns can be reduced to 3-turn. Since no similar turn-reduction classical technique is currently known, our result gives evidence of the power of quantum computation in the setting of distributed interactive proofs as well.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Distributed algorithms
  • Theory of computation → Quantum computation theory
  • distributed interactive proofs
  • distributed verification
  • quantum computation


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