On the Pitfalls of Resource Augmentation Factors and Utilization Bounds in Real-Time Scheduling

Authors Jian-Jia Chen, Georg von der Brüggen, Wen-Hung Huang, Robert I. Davis

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Jian-Jia Chen
Georg von der Brüggen
Wen-Hung Huang
Robert I. Davis

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Jian-Jia Chen, Georg von der Brüggen, Wen-Hung Huang, and Robert I. Davis. On the Pitfalls of Resource Augmentation Factors and Utilization Bounds in Real-Time Scheduling. In 29th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 76, pp. 9:1-9:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


In this paper, we take a careful look at speedup factors, utilization bounds, and capacity augmentation bounds. These three metrics have been widely adopted in real-time scheduling research as the de facto standard theoretical tools for assessing scheduling algorithms and schedulability tests. Despite that, it is not always clear how researchers and designers should interpret or use these metrics. In studying this area, we found a number of surprising results, and related to them, ways in which the metrics may be misinterpreted or misunderstood. In this paper, we provide a perspective on the use of these metrics, guiding researchers on their meaning and interpretation, and helping to avoid pitfalls in their use. Finally, we propose and demonstrate the use of parametric augmentation functions as a means of providing nuanced information that may be more relevant in practical settings.
  • Real-time systems
  • speedup factors
  • utilization bounds
  • capacity augmentation bounds


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