Response-Time Analysis of ROS 2 Processing Chains Under Reservation-Based Scheduling

Authors Daniel Casini, Tobias Blaß, Ingo Lütkebohle, Björn B. Brandenburg

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Author Details

Daniel Casini
  • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy
  • Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS), Kaiserslautern, Germany
Tobias Blaß
  • Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany
  • Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany
Ingo Lütkebohle
  • Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany
Björn B. Brandenburg
  • Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS), Kaiserslautern, Germany

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Daniel Casini, Tobias Blaß, Ingo Lütkebohle, and Björn B. Brandenburg. Response-Time Analysis of ROS 2 Processing Chains Under Reservation-Based Scheduling. In 31st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 133, pp. 6:1-6:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


Bounding the end-to-end latency of processing chains in distributed real-time systems is a well-studied problem, relevant in multiple industrial fields, such as automotive systems and robotics. Nonetheless, to date, only little attention has been given to the study of the impact that specific frameworks and implementation choices have on real-time performance. This paper proposes a scheduling model and a response-time analysis for ROS 2 (specifically, version "Crystal Clemmys" released in December 2018), a popular framework for the rapid prototyping, development, and deployment of robotics applications with thousands of professional users around the world. The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, it is aimed at providing to robotic engineers a practical analysis to bound the worst-case response times of their applications. Secondly, it shines a light on current ROS 2 implementation choices from a real-time perspective. Finally, it presents a realistic real-time scheduling model, which provides an opportunity for future impact on the robotics industry.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Software and its engineering → Real-time schedulability
  • ROS
  • real-time systems
  • response-time analysis
  • robotics
  • resource reservation


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