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# Towards Identity Testing for Sums of Products of Read-Once and Multilinear Bounded-Read Formulae

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## Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their detailed comments and suggestions on the previous version of the paper.

## Cite As

Pranav Bisht, Nikhil Gupta, and Ilya Volkovich. Towards Identity Testing for Sums of Products of Read-Once and Multilinear Bounded-Read Formulae. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 9:1-9:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.9

## Abstract

An arithmetic formula is an arithmetic circuit where each gate has fan-out one. An arithmetic read-once formula (ROF in short) is an arithmetic formula where each input variable labels at most one leaf. In this paper we present several efficient blackbox polynomial identity testing (PIT) algorithms for some classes of polynomials related to read-once formulas. Namely, for polynomial of the form: - f = Φ_1 ⋅ … ⋅ Φ_m + Ψ₁ ⋅ … ⋅ Ψ_r, where Φ_i,Ψ_j are ROFs for every i ∈ [m], j ∈ [r]. - f = Φ_1^{e₁} + Φ₂^{e₂} + Φ₃^{e₃}, where each Φ_i is an ROF and e_i-s are arbitrary positive integers. Earlier, only a whitebox polynomial-time algorithm was known for the former class by Mahajan, Rao and Sreenivasaiah (Algorithmica 2016). In the same paper, they also posed an open problem to come up with an efficient PIT algorithm for the class of polynomials of the form f = Φ_1^{e₁} + Φ_2^{e₂} + … + Φ_k^{e_k}, where each Φ_i is an ROF and k is some constant. Our second result answers this partially by giving a polynomial-time algorithm when k = 3. More generally, when each Φ₁,Φ₂,Φ₃ is a multilinear bounded-read formulae, we also give a quasi-polynomial-time blackbox PIT algorithm. Our main technique relies on the hardness of representation approach introduced in Shpilka and Volkovich (Computational Complexity 2015). Specifically, we show hardness of representation for the resultant polynomial of two ROFs in our first result. For our second result, we lift hardness of representation for a sum of three ROFs to sum of their powers.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Algebraic complexity theory
• Theory of computation → Pseudorandomness and derandomization
##### Keywords
• Identity Testing
• Derandomization
• Arithmetic Formulas

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