An Arithmetic for Rooted Trees

Author Fabrizio Luccio

Thumbnail PDF


  • Filesize: 0.55 MB
  • 14 pages

Document Identifiers

Author Details

Fabrizio Luccio

Cite AsGet BibTex

Fabrizio Luccio. An Arithmetic for Rooted Trees. In 8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 49, pp. 23:1-23:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


We propose a new arithmetic for non-empty rooted unordered trees simply called trees. After discussing tree representation and enumeration, we define the operations of tree addition, multiplication, and stretch, prove their properties, and show that all trees can be generated from a starting tree of one vertex. We then show how a given tree can be obtained as the sum or product of two trees, thus defining prime trees with respect to addition and multiplication. In both cases we show how primality can be decided in time polynomial in the number of vertices and prove that factorization is unique. We then define negative trees and suggest dealing with tree equations, giving some preliminary examples. Finally we comment on how our arithmetic might be useful, and discuss preceding studies that have some relations with ours. The parts of this work that do not concur to an immediate illustration of our proposal, including formal proofs, are reported in the Appendix. To the best of our knowledge our proposal is completely new and can be largely modified in cooperation with the readers. To the ones of his age the author suggests that "many roads must be walked down before we call it a theory".
  • Arithmetic
  • Rooted tree
  • Prime tree
  • Tree equation


  • Access Statistics
  • Total Accesses (updated on a weekly basis)
    PDF Downloads
Questions / Remarks / Feedback

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail