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# Sublinear-Space Lexicographic Depth-First Search for Bounded Treewidth Graphs and Planar Graphs

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## Cite As

Taisuke Izumi and Yota Otachi. Sublinear-Space Lexicographic Depth-First Search for Bounded Treewidth Graphs and Planar Graphs. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 67:1-67:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.67

## Abstract

The lexicographic depth-first search (Lex-DFS) is one of the first basic graph problems studied in the context of space-efficient algorithms. It is shown independently by Asano et al. [ISAAC 2014] and Elmasry et al. [STACS 2015] that Lex-DFS admits polynomial-time algorithms that run with O(n)-bit working memory, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. Lex-DFS is known to be P-complete under logspace reduction, and giving or ruling out polynomial-time sublinear-space algorithms for Lex-DFS on general graphs is quite challenging. In this paper, we study Lex-DFS on graphs of bounded treewidth. We first show that given a tree decomposition of width O(n^(1-ε)) with ε > 0, Lex-DFS can be solved in sublinear space. We then complement this result by presenting a space-efficient algorithm that can compute, for w ≤ √n, a tree decomposition of width O(w √nlog n) or correctly decide that the graph has a treewidth more than w. This algorithm itself would be of independent interest as the first space-efficient algorithm for computing a tree decomposition of moderate (small but non-constant) width. By combining these results, we can show in particular that graphs of treewidth O(n^(1/2 - ε)) for some ε > 0 admits a polynomial-time sublinear-space algorithm for Lex-DFS. We can also show that planar graphs admit a polynomial-time algorithm with O(n^(1/2+ε))-bit working memory for Lex-DFS.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Problems, reductions and completeness
• Theory of computation → Complexity classes
• Theory of computation → Graph algorithms analysis
• Mathematics of computing → Graph algorithms
##### Keywords
• depth-first search
• space complexity
• treewidth

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