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Cryptographic Hardness Under Projections for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity

Authors Eric Allender , John Gouwar, Shuichi Hirahara, Caleb Robelle



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Author Details

Eric Allender
  • Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA
John Gouwar
  • Northeastern University, Boston, USA
Shuichi Hirahara
  • National Institute of Informatics, Japan
Caleb Robelle
  • MIT, Boston, USA

Acknowledgements

We thank Rahul Santhanam, Oded Goldreich, Salil Vadhan, Harsha Tirumala, Dieter van Melkebeek and Andrew Morgan for helpful discussions. We also thank the anonymous reviewers who provided helpful comments.

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Eric Allender, John Gouwar, Shuichi Hirahara, and Caleb Robelle. Cryptographic Hardness Under Projections for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 54:1-54:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.54

Abstract

A version of time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, denoted KT, has received attention in the past several years, due to its close connection to circuit complexity and to the Minimum Circuit Size Problem MCSP. Essentially all results about the complexity of MCSP hold also for MKTP (the problem of computing the KT complexity of a string). Both MKTP and MCSP are hard for SZK (Statistical Zero Knowledge) under BPP-Turing reductions; neither is known to be NP-complete. Recently, some hardness results for MKTP were proved that are not (yet) known to hold for MCSP. In particular, MKTP is hard for DET (a subclass of P) under nonuniform ≤^{NC^0}_m reductions. In this paper, we improve this, to show that the complement of MKTP is hard for the (apparently larger) class NISZK_L under not only ≤^{NC^0}_m reductions but even under projections. Also, the complement of MKTP is hard for NISZK under ≤^{P/poly}_m reductions. Here, NISZK is the class of problems with non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, and NISZK_L is the non-interactive version of the class SZK_L that was studied by Dvir et al. As an application, we provide several improved worst-case to average-case reductions to problems in NP, and we obtain a new lower bound on MKTP (which is currently not known to hold for MCSP).

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Complexity classes
  • Theory of computation → Problems, reductions and completeness
  • Theory of computation → Circuit complexity
Keywords
  • Kolmogorov Complexity
  • Interactive Proofs
  • Minimum Circuit Size Problem
  • Worst-case to Average-case Reductions

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