Non-Backtracking Spectrum of Degree-Corrected Stochastic Block Models

Authors Lennart Gulikers, Marc Lelarge, Laurent Massoulié



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Lennart Gulikers
Marc Lelarge
Laurent Massoulié

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Lennart Gulikers, Marc Lelarge, and Laurent Massoulié. Non-Backtracking Spectrum of Degree-Corrected Stochastic Block Models. In 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 67, pp. 44:1-44:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.44

Abstract

Motivated by community detection, we characterise the spectrum of the non-backtracking matrix B in the Degree-Corrected Stochastic Block Model. Specifically, we consider a random graph on n vertices partitioned into two asymptotically equal-sized clusters. The vertices have i.i.d. weights {\phi_u}_{u=1}^n with second moment \PHItwo. The intra-cluster connection probability for vertices u and v is \frac{\phi_u \phi_v}{n}a and the inter-cluster connection probability is \frac{\phi_u \phi_v}{n}b. We show that with high probability, the following holds: The leading eigenvalue of the non-backtracking matrix B is asymptotic to \rho = \frac{a+b}{2} \PHItwo. The second eigenvalue is asymptotic to \mu_2 = \frac{a-b}{2} \PHItwo when \mu_2^2 > \rho, but asymptotically bounded by \sqrt{\rho} when \mu_2^2 \leq \rho. All the remaining eigenvalues are asymptotically bounded by \sqrt{\rho}. As a result, a clustering positively-correlated with the true communities can be obtained based on the second eigenvector of B in the regime where \mu_2^2 > \rho. In a previous work we obtained that detection is impossible when $\mu_2^2 \leq \rho,$ meaning that there occurs a phase-transition in the sparse regime of the Degree-Corrected Stochastic Block Model. As a corollary, we obtain that Degree-Corrected Erdös-Rényi graphs asymptotically satisfy the graph Riemann hypothesis, a quasi-Ramanujan property. A by-product of our proof is a weak law of large numbers for local-functionals on Degree-Corrected Stochastic Block Models, which could be of independent interest.
Keywords
  • Degree-Corrected Stochastic Block Model
  • Non-backtracking Matrix
  • Machine Learning
  • Social Networks

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