Proofs of Catalytic Space

Author Krzysztof Pietrzak

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Krzysztof Pietrzak
  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Austria

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Krzysztof Pietrzak. Proofs of Catalytic Space. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 59:1-59:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


Proofs of space (PoS) [Dziembowski et al., CRYPTO'15] are proof systems where a prover can convince a verifier that he "wastes" disk space. PoS were introduced as a more ecological and economical replacement for proofs of work which are currently used to secure blockchains like Bitcoin. In this work we investigate extensions of PoS which allow the prover to embed useful data into the dedicated space, which later can be recovered. Our first contribution is a security proof for the original PoS from CRYPTO'15 in the random oracle model (the original proof only applied to a restricted class of adversaries which can store a subset of the data an honest prover would store). When this PoS is instantiated with recent constructions of maximally depth robust graphs, our proof implies basically optimal security. As a second contribution we show three different extensions of this PoS where useful data can be embedded into the space required by the prover. Our security proof for the PoS extends (non-trivially) to these constructions. We discuss how some of these variants can be used as proofs of catalytic space (PoCS), a notion we put forward in this work, and which basically is a PoS where most of the space required by the prover can be used to backup useful data. Finally we discuss how one of the extensions is a candidate construction for a proof of replication (PoR), a proof system recently suggested in the Filecoin whitepaper.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Interactive proof systems
  • Proofs of Space
  • Proofs of Replication
  • Blockchains


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