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# Efficient Reconstruction of Depth Three Arithmetic Circuits with Top Fan-In Two

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## Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Vineet Nair for helping with organization and presentation of the paper. I would also like to thank Neeraj Kayal and Chandan Saha for helpful comments on an early presentation of this work. Neeraj Kayal shared the simple idea behind proof of Lemma 52 with me. Lastly, I would like to thank Anuja Sharan for proofreading the paper.

## Cite As

Gaurav Sinha. Efficient Reconstruction of Depth Three Arithmetic Circuits with Top Fan-In Two. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 118:1-118:33, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.118

## Abstract

In this paper we develop efficient randomized algorithms to solve the black-box reconstruction problem for polynomials over finite fields, computable by depth three arithmetic circuits with alternating addition/multiplication gates, such that output gate is an addition gate with in-degree two. Such circuits naturally compute polynomials of the form G×(T₁ + T₂), where G,T₁,T₂ are product of affine forms computed at the first layer in the circuit, and polynomials T₁,T₂ have no common factors. Rank of such a circuit is defined to be the dimension of vector space spanned by all affine factors of T₁ and T₂. For any polynomial f computable by such a circuit, rank(f) is defined to be the minimum rank of any such circuit computing it. Our work develops randomized reconstruction algorithms which take as input black-box access to a polynomial f (over finite field 𝔽), computable by such a circuit. Here are the results. - [Low rank]: When 5 ≤ rank(f) = O(log³ d), it runs in time (nd^{log³d}log |𝔽|)^{O(1)}, and, with high probability, outputs a depth three circuit computing f, with top addition gate having in-degree ≤ d^{rank(f)}. - [High rank]: When rank(f) = Ω(log³ d), it runs in time (ndlog |𝔽|)^{O(1)}, and, with high probability, outputs a depth three circuit computing f, with top addition gate having in-degree two. Prior to our work, black-box reconstruction for this circuit class was addressed in [Amir Shpilka, 2007; Karnin and Shpilka, 2009; Sinha, 2016]. Reconstruction algorithm in [Amir Shpilka, 2007] runs in time quasi-polynomial in n,d,|𝔽| and that in [Karnin and Shpilka, 2009] is quasi-polynomial in d,|𝔽|. Algorithm in [Sinha, 2016] works only for polynomials over characteristic zero fields. Thus, ours is the first blackbox reconstruction algorithm for this class of circuits that runs in time polynomial in log |𝔽|. This problem has been mentioned as an open problem in [Ankit Gupta et al., 2012] (STOC 2012). In the high rank case, our algorithm runs in (ndlog|𝔽|)^{O(1)} time, thereby significantly improving the existing algorithms in [Amir Shpilka, 2007; Karnin and Shpilka, 2009].

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Algebraic complexity theory
##### Keywords
• Arithmetic Circuits
• Circuit Reconstruction

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