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# Roman Census: Enumerating and Counting Roman Dominating Functions on Graph Classes

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Faisal N. Abu-Khzam, Henning Fernau, and Kevin Mann. Roman Census: Enumerating and Counting Roman Dominating Functions on Graph Classes. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 6:1-6:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.6

## Abstract

The concept of Roman domination has recently been studied concerning enumerating and counting in F. N. Abu-Khzam et al. (WG 2022). More technically speaking, a function that assigns 0,1,2 to the vertices of an undirected graph is called a Roman dominating function if each vertex assigned zero has a neighbor assigned two. Such a function is called minimal if decreasing any assignment to any vertex would yield a function that is no longer a Roman dominating function. It has been shown that minimal Roman dominating functions can be enumerated with polynomial delay, i.e., between any two outputs of a solution, no more than polynomial time will elapse. This contrasts what is known about minimal dominating sets, where the question whether or not these can be enumerated with polynomial delay is open for more than 40 years. This makes the concept of Roman domination rather special and interesting among the many variants of domination problems studied in the literature, as it has been shown for several of these variants that the question of enumerating minimal solutions is tightly linked to that of enumerating minimal dominating sets, see M. Kanté et al. in SIAM J. Disc. Math., 2014. The running time of the mentioned enumeration algorithm for minimal Roman dominating functions (Abu-Khzam et al., WG 2022) could be estimated as 𝒪(1.9332ⁿ) on general graphs of order n. Here, we focus on special graph classes, as has been also done for enumerating minimal dominating sets before. More specifically, for chordal graphs, we present an enumeration algorithm running in time 𝒪(1.8940ⁿ). It is unknown if this gives a tight bound on the maximum number of minimal Roman dominating functions in chordal graphs. For interval graphs, we can lower this time bound further to 𝒪(1.7321ⁿ), which also matches the known lower bound concerning the maximum number of minimal Roman dominating functions. We can also provide a matching lower and upper bound for forests, which is (incidentally) the same, namely 𝒪^*(√3ⁿ). Furthermore, we present an optimal enumeration algorithm running in time 𝒪^*(∛3ⁿ) for split graphs and for cobipartite graphs, i.e., we can also give a matching lower bound example for these graph classes. Hence, our enumeration algorithms for interval graphs, forests, split graphs and cobipartite graphs are all optimal. The importance of our results stems from the fact that, for other types of domination problems, optimal enumeration algorithms are not always found. Interestingly, we use a different form of analysis for the running times of our different algorithms, and the branchings had to be tailored and tweaked to obtain the intended optimality results. Our Roman dominating functions enumeration algorithm for trees and forests is distinctively different from the one for minimal dominating sets by Rote (SODA 2019).Our approach also allows to give concrete formulas for counting minimal Roman dominating functions on more concrete graph families like paths.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Problems, reductions and completeness
• Theory of computation → Parameterized complexity and exact algorithms
##### Keywords
• special graph classes
• counting problems
• enumeration problems
• domination problems
• Roman domination

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