Quantum Query Complexity of Subgraph Isomorphism and Homomorphism

Authors Raghav Kulkarni, Supartha Podder

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Raghav Kulkarni
Supartha Podder

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Raghav Kulkarni and Supartha Podder. Quantum Query Complexity of Subgraph Isomorphism and Homomorphism. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 48:1-48:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


Let H be a (non-empty) graph on n vertices, possibly containing isolated vertices. Let f_H(G) = 1 iff the input graph G on n vertices contains H as a (not necessarily induced) subgraph. Let alpha_H denote the cardinality of a maximum independent set of H. In this paper we show: Q(f_H) = Omega( sqrt{alpha_H * n}), where Q(f_H) denotes the quantum query complexity of f_H. As a consequence we obtain lower bounds for Q(f_H) in terms of several other parameters of H such as the average degree, minimum vertex cover, chromatic number, and the critical probability. We also use the above bound to show that Q(f_H) = Omega(n^{3/4}) for any H, improving on the previously best known bound of Omega(n^{2/3}) [M. Santha/A. Chi-Chih Yao, unpublished manuscript]. Until very recently, it was believed that the quantum query complexity is at least square root of the randomized one. Our Omega(n^{3/4}) bound for Q(f_H) matches the square root of the current best known bound for the randomized query complexity of f_H, which is Omega(n^{3/2}) due to Groger. Interestingly, the randomized bound of Omega(alpha_H * n) for f_H still remains open. We also study the Subgraph Homomorphism Problem, denoted by f_{[H]}, and show that Q(f_{[H]}) = Omega(n). Finally we extend our results to the 3-uniform hypergraphs. In particular, we show an Omega(n^{4/5}) bound for quantum query complexity of the Subgraph Isomorphism, improving on the previously known Omega(n^{3/4}) bound. For the Subgraph Homomorphism, we obtain an Omega(n^{3/2}) bound for the same.
  • quantum query complexity
  • subgraph isomorphism
  • monotone graph properties


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