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Efficient Oracles and Routing Schemes for Replacement Paths

Authors Davide Bilò, Keerti Choudhary, Luciano Gualà, Stefano Leucci, Merav Parter, Guido Proietti



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Davide Bilò
Keerti Choudhary
Luciano Gualà
Stefano Leucci
Merav Parter
Guido Proietti

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Davide Bilò, Keerti Choudhary, Luciano Gualà, Stefano Leucci, Merav Parter, and Guido Proietti. Efficient Oracles and Routing Schemes for Replacement Paths. In 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 96, pp. 13:1-13:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.13

Abstract

Real life graphs and networks are prone to failure of nodes (vertices) and links (edges). In particular, for a pair of nodes s and t and a failing edge e in an n-vertex unweighted graph G=(V(G),E(G)), the replacement path pi_{G-e}(s,t) is a shortest s-t path that avoids e. In this paper we present several efficient constructions that, for every (s,t) \in S x T, where S, T \subseteq V(G), and every e \in E(G), maintain the collection of all pi_{G-e}(s,t), either implicitly (i.e., through compact data structures a.k.a. distance sensitivity oracles (DSO)), or explicitly (i.e., through sparse subgraphs a.k.a. fault-tolerant preservers (FTP)). More precisely, we provide the following results: (1) DSO: For every S,T \subseteq V(G), we construct a DSO for maintaining S x T distances under single edge (or vertex) faults. This DSO has size tilde{O}(n\sqrt{|S||T|}) and query time of O(\sqrt{|S||T|}). At the expense of having quasi-polynomial query time, the size of the oracle can be improved to tilde{O}(n|S|+|T|\sqrt{|S|n}), which is optimal for |T| = Omega(sqrt{n|S|}). When |T| = Omega(n^frac{3}{4} |S|^frac{1}{4}), the construction can be further refined in order to get a polynomial query time. We also consider the approximate additive setting, and show a family of DSOs that exhibits a tradeoff between the additive stretch and the size of the oracle. Finally, for the meaningful single-source case, the above result is complemented by a lower bound conditioned on the Set-Intersection conjecture. This lower bound establishes a separation between the oracle and the subgraph settings. (2) FTP: We show the construction of a path-reporting DSO of size tilde{O}(n^{4/3}(|S||T|)^{1/3}) reporting pi_{G-e}(s,t) in O(|pi_{G-e}(s,t)|+(n|S||T|)^{1/3}) time. Such a DSO can be transformed into a FTP having the same size, and moreover it can be elaborated in order to make it optimal (up to a poly-logarithmic factor) both in space and query time for the special case in which T=V(G). Our FTP improves over previous constructions when |T|=O(sqrt{|S|n}) (up to inverse poly-logarithmic factors). (3) Routing and Labeling Schemes: For the well-studied single-source setting, we present a novel routing scheme, that allows to route messages on pi_{G-e}(s,t) by using edge labels and routing tables of size tilde{O}(\sqrt{n}), and a header message of poly-logarithmic size. We also present a labeling scheme for the setting which is optimal in space up to constant factors.
Keywords
  • Fault tolerant
  • Shortest path
  • Oracle
  • Routing

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