Document Open Access Logo

ZVAX - A Microservice Reference Architecture for Nation-Scale Pandemic Management

Authors Oliver Cvetkovski , Carlo Field, Davide Trinchi, Christof Marti, Josef Spillner

Thumbnail PDF


  • Filesize: 1.82 MB
  • 16 pages

Document Identifiers

Author Details

Oliver Cvetkovski
  • Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland
  • University of St. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, North Macedonia
Carlo Field
  • Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland
Davide Trinchi
  • Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland
Christof Marti
  • Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland
Josef Spillner
  • Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland

Cite AsGet BibTex

Oliver Cvetkovski, Carlo Field, Davide Trinchi, Christof Marti, and Josef Spillner. ZVAX - A Microservice Reference Architecture for Nation-Scale Pandemic Management. In Joint Post-proceedings of the Third and Fourth International Conference on Microservices (Microservices 2020/2022). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 111, pp. 4:1-4:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


Domain-specific Microservice Reference Architectures (MSRA) have become relevant study objects in software technology. They facilitate the technical evaluation of service designs, compositions patterns and deployment configurations in realistic operational practice. Current knowledge about MSRA is predominantly confined to business domains with modest numbers of users per application. Due to the ongoing massive digital transformation of society, people-related online services in e-government, e-health and similar domains must be designed to be highly scalable at entire nation level at affordable infrastructure cost. With ZVAX, we present such a service in the e-health domain. Specifically, the ZVAX implementation adheres to an MSRA for pandemic-related processes such as vaccination registration and passenger locator form submission, with emphasis on selectable levels of privacy. We argue that ZVAX is valuable as study object for the training of software engineers and for the debate on arbitrary government-to-people services at scale.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Computing methodologies → Distributed computing methodologies
  • Computer systems organization → Availability
  • Applied computing → E-government
  • Nation-scale applications
  • microservices
  • digital transformation


  • Access Statistics
  • Total Accesses (updated on a weekly basis)
    PDF Downloads


  1. Lorenzo Bacchiani, Mario Bravetti, Maurizio Gabbrielli, Saverio Giallorenzo, Gianluigi Zavattaro, and Stefano Pio Zingaro. Proactive-reactive global scaling, with analytics. In Javier Troya, Brahim Medjahed, Mario Piattini, Lina Yao, Pablo Fernández, and Antonio Ruiz-Cortés, editors, Service-Oriented Computing - 20th International Conference, ICSOC 2022, Seville, Spain, November 29 - December 2, 2022, Proceedings, volume 13740 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 237-254. Springer, 2022. URL:
  2. Masoud Barati, William J. Buchanan, Owen Lo, and Omer F. Rana. A privacy-preserving distributed platform for COVID-19 vaccine passports. In Luiz F. Bittencourt and Alan Sill, editors, UCC '21: 2021 IEEE/ACM 14th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing, Leicester, United Kingdom, December 6 - 9, 2021 - Companion Volume, pages 16:1-16:6. ACM, 2021. URL:
  3. Benjamin Benni, Sébastien Mosser, Jean-Philippe Caissy, and Yann-Gaël Guéhéneuc. Can microservice-based online-retailers be used as an spl?: a study of six reference architectures. In Roberto Erick Lopez-Herrejon, editor, SPLC '20: 24th ACM International Systems and Software Product Line Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 19-23, 2020, Volume A, pages 24:1-24:6. ACM, 2020. URL:
  4. Andy S. Berres, Brett C. Bass, Mark B. Adams, Eric Garrison, and Joshua R. New. A data-driven approach to nation-scale building energy modeling. In Yixin Chen, Heiko Ludwig, Yicheng Tu, Usama M. Fayyad, Xingquan Zhu, Xiaohua Hu, Suren Byna, Xiong Liu, Jianping Zhang, Shirui Pan, Vagelis Papalexakis, Jianwu Wang, Alfredo Cuzzocrea, and Carlos Ordonez, editors, 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data), Orlando, FL, USA, December 15-18, 2021, pages 1558-1565. IEEE, 2021. URL:
  5. Eric Braun. Microservice-based Reference Architecture for Semantics-aware Measurement Systems. PhD thesis, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, 2020. URL:
  6. Mario Bravetti, Saverio Giallorenzo, Jacopo Mauro, Iacopo Talevi, and Gianluigi Zavattaro. Optimal and automated deployment for microservices. In Reiner Hähnle and Wil M. P. van der Aalst, editors, Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering - 22nd International Conference, FASE 2019, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2019, Prague, Czech Republic, April 6-11, 2019, Proceedings, volume 11424 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 351-368. Springer, 2019. URL:
  7. Antonio Brogi, Andrea Canciani, Davide Neri, Luca Rinaldi, and Jacopo Soldani. Towards a reference dataset of microservice-based applications. In Antonio Cerone and Marco Roveri, editors, Software Engineering and Formal Methods - SEFM 2017 Collocated Workshops: DataMod, FAACS, MSE, CoSim-CPS, and FOCLASA, Trento, Italy, September 4-5, 2017, Revised Selected Papers, volume 10729 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 219-229. Springer, 2017. URL:
  8. Andreea Ancuta Corici, Tina Hühnlein, Detlef Hühnlein, and Olaf Rode. Towards interoperable vaccination certificate services. In Delphine Reinhardt and Tilo Müller, editors, ARES 2021: The 16th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, Vienna, Austria, August 17-20, 2021, pages 139:1-139:9. ACM, 2021. URL:
  9. Oliver Cvetkovski, Carlo Field, Davide Trinchi, Christof Marti, and Josef Spillner. ZVAX - A Microservice Reference Architecture for Nation-Scale Pandemic Management. International Conference on Microservices (Microservices) - Extended Abstract, may 2022. Google Scholar
  10. Oliver Cvetkovski, Carlo Field, Davide Trinchi, and Josef Spillner. ZVAX - Zurich vaccination and pandemic management software. Zenodo, apr 2023. URL:
  11. Oliver Cvetkovski and Josef Spillner. A self-contained, decentralized and nation-scale approach to e-government services. 10th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing in Emerging Markets (CCEM) - Student Project Showcase, oct 2021. Google Scholar
  12. Mauricio de Vasconcelos Barros, Frederico Schardong, and Ricardo Felipe Custódio. Leveraging self-sovereign identity, blockchain, and zero-knowledge proof to build a privacy-preserving vaccination pass. CoRR, abs/2202.09207, 2022. URL:
  13. Anthony Downward, Subeh Chowdhury, and Chapa Jayalath. An investigation of route-choice in integrated public transport networks by risk-averse users. Public Transp., 11(1):89-110, 2019. URL:
  14. Yu Gan, Yanqi Zhang, Dailun Cheng, Ankitha Shetty, Priyal Rathi, Nayan Katarki, Ariana Bruno, Justin Hu, Brian Ritchken, Brendon Jackson, Kelvin Hu, Meghna Pancholi, Yuan He, Brett Clancy, Chris Colen, Fukang Wen, Catherine Leung, Siyuan Wang, Leon Zaruvinsky, Mateo Espinosa, Rick Lin, Zhongling Liu, Jake Padilla, and Christina Delimitrou. An open-source benchmark suite for microservices and their hardware-software implications for cloud & edge systems. In Iris Bahar, Maurice Herlihy, Emmett Witchel, and Alvin R. Lebeck, editors, Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, ASPLOS 2019, Providence, RI, USA, April 13-17, 2019, pages 3-18. ACM, 2019. URL:
  15. Andrin Hauri, Kevin Kohler, and Benjamin Scharte. A comparative assessment of mobile device-based multi-hazard warnings: Saving lives through public alerts in europe. CSS Risk and Resilience Reports, 2022. Google Scholar
  16. Michail-Alexandros Kourtis, Begoña Blanco, Jordi Pérez-Romero, Dimitris Makris, Michael J. McGrath, George Xilouris, Daniele Munaretto, Ruben Solozabal, Aitor Sanchoyerto, Ioannis Giannoulakis, Emmanouil Kafetzakis, Vincenzo Riccobene, Elisa Jimeno, Anastasios Kourtis, Ramon Ferrús, Fidel Liberal, Harilaos Koumaras, Alexandros Kostopoulos, and Ioannis P. Chochliouros. A cloud-enabled small cell architecture in 5g networks for broadcast/multicast services. IEEE Trans. Broadcast., 65(2):414-424, 2019. URL:
  17. Peini Liu, Xinjun Mao, Shuai Zhang, and Fu Hou. Towards reference architecture for a multi-layer controlled self-adaptive microservice system. In Óscar Mortágua Pereira, editor, The 30th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, Hotel Pullman, Redwood City, California, USA, July 1-3, 2018, pages 236-235. KSI Research Inc. and Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School, 2018. URL:
  18. Manuel Ramírez López and Josef Spillner. Towards quantifiable boundaries for elastic horizontal scaling of microservices. In Ashiq Anjum, Alan Sill, Geoffrey C. Fox, and Yong Chen, editors, Companion Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing, UCC 2017, Austin, TX, USA, December 5-8, 2017, pages 35-40. ACM, 2017. URL:
  19. Sahar Mazloom, Phi Hung Le, Samuel Ranellucci, and S. Dov Gordon. Secure parallel computation on national scale volumes of data. In Srdjan Capkun and Franziska Roesner, editors, 29th USENIX Security Symposium, USENIX Security 2020, August 12-14, 2020, pages 2487-2504. USENIX Association, 2020. URL:
  20. William J. B. Midgley, Michael J. de C. Henshaw, and S. Alshuhri. A systems-engineering approach to nation-scale problems: Municipal solid waste management in saudi arabia. Syst. Eng., 24(6):480-496, 2021. URL:
  21. Laurie Pickard, Dhawal Shah, and J. J. De Simone. Mapping microcredentials across MOOC platforms. In Learning With MOOCS, LWMOOCS 2018, Madrid, Spain, September 26-28, 2018, pages 17-21. IEEE, 2018. URL:
  22. Mohammad Reza Saleh Sedghpour, Aleksandra Obeso Duque, Xuejun Cai, Björn Skubic, Erik Elmroth, Cristian Klein, and Johan Tordsson. Hydragen: A microservice benchmark generator. In 16th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing, CLOUD 2023, Chicago, IL, USA, July 2-8, 2023, pages 189-200. IEEE, 2023. URL:
  23. Marwin Shraideh, Patroklos Samaras, Maximilian Schreieck, and Helmut Krcmar. A microservice-based reference architecture for digital platforms in the proteomics domain. In Leona Chandra Kruse, Stefan Seidel, and Geir Inge Hausvik, editors, The Next Wave of Sociotechnical Design - 16th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, DESRIST 2021, Kristiansand, Norway, August 4-6, 2021, Proceedings, volume 12807 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 260-271. Springer, 2021. URL:
  24. Hui Song, Phu Hong Nguyen, Franck Chauvel, Jens M. Glattetre, and Thomas Schjerpen. Customizing multi-tenant saas by microservices: A reference architecture. In Elisa Bertino, Carl K. Chang, Peter Chen, Ernesto Damiani, Michael Goul, and Katsunori Oyama, editors, 2019 IEEE International Conference on Web Services, ICWS 2019, Milan, Italy, July 8-13, 2019, pages 446-448. IEEE, 2019. URL:
  25. Sandro Speth, Sarah Stieß, and Steffen Becker. A saga pattern microservice reference architecture for an elastic SLO violation analysis. In IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion, ICSA Companion 2022, Honolulu, HI, USA, March 12-15, 2022, pages 116-119. IEEE, 2022. URL:
  26. Akshitha Sriraman and Thomas F. Wenisch. μ suite: A benchmark suite for microservices. In 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Workload Characterization, IISWC 2018, Raleigh, NC, USA, September 30 - October 2, 2018, pages 1-12. IEEE Computer Society, 2018. URL:
  27. Takanori Ueda, Takuya Nakaike, and Moriyoshi Ohara. Workload characterization for microservices. In 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Workload Characterization, IISWC 2016, Providence, RI, USA, September 25-27, 2016, pages 85-94. IEEE Computer Society, 2016. URL:
  28. Matthias Vianden, Horst Lichter, and Andreas Steffens. Experience on a microservice-based reference architecture for measurement systems. In Sungdeok (Steve) Cha, Yann-Gaël Guéhéneuc, and Gihwon Kwon, editors, 21st Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC 2014, Jeju, South Korea, December 1-4, 2014. Volume 1: Research Papers, pages 183-190. IEEE Computer Society, 2014. URL:
  29. Yanze Wang, Shanshan Li, Huikun Liu, He Zhang, and Bo Pan. A reference architecture for blockchain-based traceability systems using domain-driven design and microservices. CoRR, abs/2302.06184, 2023. URL:
  30. Li Wu, Johan Tordsson, Erik Elmroth, and Odej Kao. Microrca: Root cause localization of performance issues in microservices. In NOMS 2020-2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, pages 1-9. IEEE, 2020. URL:
  31. Olaf Zimmermann, Mirko Stocker, Daniel Lubke, Uwe Zdun, and Cesare Pautasso. Patterns for API design: simplifying integration with loosely coupled message exchanges. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2022. Google Scholar
Questions / Remarks / Feedback

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail