Document Open Access Logo

Physical Modeling of Process Forces in Grinding

Authors Praveen Sridhar, Daniel Mannherz, Raphael Bilz, Kristin M. de Payrebrune, Mahesh R.G. Prasad, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Prieto

Thumbnail PDF


  • Filesize: 4.12 MB
  • 20 pages

Document Identifiers

Author Details

Praveen Sridhar
  • Institute of Computational Physics in Engineering, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany
Daniel Mannherz
  • Institute of Computational Physics in Engineering, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany
Raphael Bilz
  • Institute of Computational Physics in Engineering, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany
Kristin M. de Payrebrune
  • Institute of Computational Physics in Engineering, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany
Mahesh R.G. Prasad
  • ICAMS, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany
Juan Manuel Rodríguez Prieto
  • Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidad EAFIT, Medellín, Colombia


The authors would like to thank Matthias W. Klein, Marek Smaga and Tilmann Beck from the Institute of Material Sciences and Engineering at Technical Universität Kaiserslautern for their collaboration and for providing us with the experimental data used in section 2.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Praveen Sridhar, Daniel Mannherz, Raphael Bilz, Kristin M. de Payrebrune, Mahesh R.G. Prasad, and Juan Manuel Rodríguez Prieto. Physical Modeling of Process Forces in Grinding. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 16:1-16:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


This paper deals with material removal mechanisms in grinding by considering single grit-workpiece interactions. Individual investigations were performed both experimentally and using finite element simulations. Firstly, a comparison between the Johnson-Cooke material model and a Crystal Plasticity finite element method was performed with the help of micro-indentation experiments. Here the research question was answered if an anisotropic material model better describe the grinding process and process forces compared to an isotropic material model. Secondly, four discretization approaches were employed: pure Lagrangian (LAG), Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE), Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), to simulate a micro-cutting operation of A2024 T351 aluminium. This study aims to compare the conventional approaches (LAG and ALE) to newer approaches (PFEM and SPH). The orthogonal cutting models were benchmarked against a micro-cutting experiment presented in literature, by comparing the obtained cutting and passive forces. The study was then extended to negative rake angles to study the effect on the discretization approaches for grinding. Thirdly, scratch experiments were investigated for a brittle material sodalime glass and A2024 T351 aluminium. Effects of the linear speed of the device, depth of cut, and conical tool angle were analyzed and tendencies are built. Finally, a realistic simulation of the manufacturing process of a grinding wheel was developed, starting with the raw material, compression, sintering, and dressing until the final grinding surface. As a result of the simulations, virtual grinding wheel topographies can be visualized and analyzed with regard to the output variables from grinding wheels such as bonding strength and static grain count. The individual research studies help in understanding the material removal mechanisms in a single grit scratch process as well as in the understanding of the overall grinding wheel topography. This in turn helps in the developing an overall physical force model for scratching/grinding to predict mechanical output parameters and hence reduce the need for experimentation.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Computing methodologies → Modeling and simulation
  • grinding
  • single grit approach
  • finite element method
  • smooth particle hydrodynamics
  • particle finite element method
  • scratch experiments
  • virtual grinding wheel model


  • Access Statistics
  • Total Accesses (updated on a weekly basis)
    PDF Downloads


  1. P.J. Arrazola. Modelisation numerique de la coupe: etude de sensibilite des parametres d’entree et identification du frottement entre outil-copeau. PhD thesis, L'École Centrale de Nantes, 2003. Google Scholar
  2. C.P. Bhateja and R.P. Lindsay. The importance of abrasive grinding wheel hardness control for the productivity of production grinding operations. CIRP Annals, 30(1):247-249, 1981. Google Scholar
  3. B. Borsos, A. Csörgő, A. Hidas, B. Kotnyek, and G. Stépán. Two-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Turning Processes. Periodica Polytechnica Mechanical Engineering, 61(1):44-54, 2017. Google Scholar
  4. X. Chen and W.B. Rowe. Analysis and simulation of the grinding process. part i: generation of the grinding wheel surface. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 36(8):871-882, 1996. Google Scholar
  5. D.A. Doman, R. Bauer, and A. Warkentin. Experimentally validated finite element model of the rubbing and ploughing phases in scratch tests. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 223(12):1519-1527, 2009. Google Scholar
  6. A. Hillerborg, M. Modéer, and P. E. Petersson. Analysis of crack formation and crack growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite elements. Cement and Concrete Research, 6(6):773-781, 1976. Google Scholar
  7. S. R. Idelsohn, E. Onate, and F. Del Pin. The particle finite element method: A powerful tool to solve incompressible flows with free-surfaces and breaking waves. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 61(7):964-989, 2004. Google Scholar
  8. M.J. Jackson. A study of vitreous-bonded abrasive materials. PhD thesis, Liverpool John Moores University, 1995. Google Scholar
  9. G.R. Johnson and W.H. Cook. A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. In Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, pages 541-547, 1983. Google Scholar
  10. B. Kirsch, C. Effgen, M. Büchel, and J.C. Aurich. Comparison of the embodied energy of a grinding wheel and an end mill. Procedia CIRP, 15:74-79, 2014. Google Scholar
  11. M.W Klein, B. Blinn, M. Smaga, and T. Beck. High cycle fatigue behavior of high-mn twip steel with different surface morphologies. International Journal of Fatigue, 134:105499, 2020. Google Scholar
  12. S. Kosaraju, V. Anne, and V. Ghanta. Effect of Rake Angle and Feed Rate on Cutting Forces in an Orthogonal Turning Process. International Conference on Trends in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 61(May):150-154, 2011. Google Scholar
  13. M. Li, W. Ding, B. Li, and J. Xu. Morphological evolution and grinding performance of vitrified bonded microcrystal alumina abrasive wheel dressed with a single-grit diamond. Ceramics International, 45(16):19669-19678, 2019. Google Scholar
  14. X. Li. Modeling and simulation of grinding processes based on a virtual wheel model and microscopic interaction analysis. PhD thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2010. Google Scholar
  15. M. Hrairi M. Djemana. Modelling and Simulation of Impedance-Based Damaged Monitoring of Structures. International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, 15:395-408, 2016. Google Scholar
  16. L. Olovsson, L. Nilsson, and K. Simonsson. ALE formulation for the solution of two-dimensional metal cutting problems. Computers and Structures, 72(4):497-507, 1999. Google Scholar
  17. T. Opoz. Investigation of Material Removal Mechanism in Grinding: A Single Grit Approach. PhD thesis, University of Huddersfield, 2012. Google Scholar
  18. D.T. Pierce, K. Nowag, A. Montagne, J.A. Jiménez, J.E. Wittig, and R. Ghisleni. Single crystal elastic constants of high-manganese transformation-and twinning-induced plasticity steels determined by a new method utilizing nanoindentation. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 578:134-139, 2013. Google Scholar
  19. Manika Prasad, Malgorzata Kopycinska, Ute Rabe, and Walter Arnold. Measurement of young’s modulus of clay minerals using atomic force acoustic microscopy. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(8):13-1-13-4, 2002. Google Scholar
  20. J.M. Rodríguez, J.M. Carbonell, and P. Jonsén. Numerical Methods for the Modelling of Chip Formation. Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, pages 1-48, 2018. Google Scholar
  21. J.M. Rodríguez, J.M. Carbonell, J C. Cante, J. Oliver, and P. Jonsén. Generation of segmental chips in metal cutting modeled with the PFEM. Computational Mechanics, 61(6):639-655, 2018. Google Scholar
  22. F. Roters, P. Eisenlohr, L. Hantcherli, D.D. Tjahjanto, T.R. Bieler, and D. Raabe. Overview of constitutive laws, kinematics, homogenization and multiscale methods in crystal plasticity finite-element modeling: Theory, experiments, applications. Acta Materialia, 58(4):1152-1211, 2010. Google Scholar
  23. James F Shackelford. Introduction to materials science for engineers. Pearson Upper Saddle River, 2016. Google Scholar
  24. M. C. Shaw. Principles of abrasive processing. In Proceedings of the 32nd International MATADOR Conference, 1996. Google Scholar
  25. S. Subbiah. Some investigations of scaling effects in micro-cutting. PhD thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006. Google Scholar
  26. S. Xu, D. Ruan, J.H. Beynon, and Y. Rong. Dynamic tensile behaviour of twip steel under intermediate strain rate loading. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 573:132-140, 2013. Google Scholar
  27. Y.Y. Zhu, S.H. Liang, Z.J. Zhan, P. Xiao, and Z.K. Fan. Simulation of the change of sintering neck between two grains in two dimensions. Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters), 19(6):397-404, 2006. Google Scholar
Questions / Remarks / Feedback

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail