Volume

OASIcs, Volume 89

2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)



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Event

iPMVM 2020, November 16-18, 2020, Schloss Dagstuhl, Wadern, Germany (Virtual Conference)

Editors

Christoph Garth
  • Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany
Jan C. Aurich
  • Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany
Barbara Linke
  • University of California, Davis, CA, USA
Ralf Müller
  • Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany
Bahram Ravani
  • University of California, Davis, CA, USA
Gunther H. Weber
  • University of California, Davis, CA, USA
Benjamin Kirsch
  • Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany

Publication Details

  • published at: 2021-04-27
  • Publisher: Schloss-Dagstuhl - Leibniz Zentrum für Informatik
  • ISBN: 978-3-95977-183-2

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Documents

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Document
Complete Volume
OASIcs, Volume 89, iPMVM 2020, Complete Volume

Authors: Christoph Garth, Jan C. Aurich, Barbara Linke, Ralf Müller, Bahram Ravani, Gunther H. Weber, and Benjamin Kirsch


Abstract
OASIcs, Volume 89, iPMVM 2020, Complete Volume

Cite as

Christoph Garth, Jan C. Aurich, Barbara Linke, Ralf Müller, Bahram Ravani, Gunther H. Weber, and Benjamin Kirsch. OASIcs, Volume 89, iPMVM 2020, Complete Volume. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 1-364, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@Proceedings{garth_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020,
  title =	{{OASIcs, Volume 89, iPMVM 2020, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{1--364},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137486},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020},
  annote =	{Keywords: OASIcs, Volume 89, iPMVM 2020, Complete Volume}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Authors: Christoph Garth, Jan C. Aurich, Barbara Linke, Ralf Müller, Bahram Ravani, Gunther H. Weber, and Benjamin Kirsch


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Cite as

Christoph Garth, Jan C. Aurich, Barbara Linke, Ralf Müller, Bahram Ravani, Gunther H. Weber, and Benjamin Kirsch. Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 0:i-0:xii, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{garth_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.0,
  author =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:xii},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137497},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}
}
Document
Development and Validation of Energy Simulation for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Li Yi and Jan C. Aurich


Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a promising manufacturing technology towards cleaner production systems. Nevertheless, recent studies state that environmental benefits of AM are case-specific and need to be evaluated and confirmed in the design phase. To enable the energy performance evaluation in the design phase, developing convenient tools for energy prediction of AM has been an important research task. Aiming at this problem, this paper presents the research for energy modeling, simulation implementation, and experimental validation of an energy simulation tool of two AM processes: Selective laser melting (SLM) and Fused deposition modeling (FDM). The developed simulation tool can be conveniently used for energy consumption quantification and evaluation during the product and process design for AM.

Cite as

Li Yi and Jan C. Aurich. Development and Validation of Energy Simulation for Additive Manufacturing. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 1:1-1:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{yi_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.1,
  author =	{Yi, Li and Aurich, Jan C.},
  title =	{{Development and Validation of Energy Simulation for Additive Manufacturing}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:17},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137500},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, selective laser melting, energy simulation, eco-design for AM}
}
Document
Physical Modeling of Process-Machine-Interactions in Micro Machining

Authors: Andreas Lange, Benjamin Kirsch, Marius Heintz, and Jan C. Aurich


Abstract
Increasing demands for smaller and smarter devices in a variety of applications requires the investigation of process-machine-interactions in micro manufacturing to ensure process results that guarantee part functionality. One approach is the use of simulation-based physical models. In this contribution, methods for the physical modeling of high-precision air bearing and magnetic bearing spindles are presented in addition to a kinematic model of the micro milling process. Both models are superimposed in order to carry out investigations of the slot bottom surface roughness in micro end milling. The results show that process-machine-interactions in micro manufacturing can be modeled by the superposition of a physical model of the machine tool spindle taking cutting forces into consideration and a purely kinematic model of the machining process, providing the necessary tools for a variety of further investigations into process-machine-interactions in micro manufacturing.

Cite as

Andreas Lange, Benjamin Kirsch, Marius Heintz, and Jan C. Aurich. Physical Modeling of Process-Machine-Interactions in Micro Machining. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 2:1-2:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{lange_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.2,
  author =	{Lange, Andreas and Kirsch, Benjamin and Heintz, Marius and Aurich, Jan C.},
  title =	{{Physical Modeling of Process-Machine-Interactions in Micro Machining}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:20},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137512},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: multiphysics, air bearing, magnetic bearing, surface roughness modeling, micro milling}
}
Document
Simulation and Application of a Piezo-Driven System Enabling Vibration-Assisted Micro Milling

Authors: Sebastian Greco, Katja Klauer, Benjamin Kirsch, and Jan C. Aurich


Abstract
The ongoing miniaturization of components and the functionalization of surfaces necessitates the improvement of micro machining processes and to increase their efficiency. One method to increase the machining efficiency is reducing the process forces and tool wear, which is achieved by the implementation of vibration-assisted cutting in conventional machining processes. In vibration-assisted cutting, the conventional cutting movement is superimposed by a vibration with defined frequency. By using vibration-assisted cutting technologies, besides increased efficiency, a wider range of materials can be machined. In this paper, vibration-assisted cutting is transferred to micro machining. For this purpose, the design, simulation and application of an easy to integrate system that enables vibration-assisted cutting for micro machining processes is described. The setup was tested using a micro milling process. Two orientations between feed direction and vibration direction were investigated. Frequencies up to 15 kHz were examined, the machined material was brass (CuZn39Pb2). The effect of the superimposed vibration was analysed on the basis of process force, surface roughness, burr formation and slot bottom and was compared with the process results of micro milling without vibration-assistance. A decrease in process forces of up to 63 % was observed during vibration-assisted micro milling.

Cite as

Sebastian Greco, Katja Klauer, Benjamin Kirsch, and Jan C. Aurich. Simulation and Application of a Piezo-Driven System Enabling Vibration-Assisted Micro Milling. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 3:1-3:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{greco_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.3,
  author =	{Greco, Sebastian and Klauer, Katja and Kirsch, Benjamin and Aurich, Jan C.},
  title =	{{Simulation and Application of a Piezo-Driven System Enabling Vibration-Assisted Micro Milling}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:18},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137523},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: micro machining, micro milling, vibration-assisted cutting, Finite Element Analysis, surface roughness}
}
Document
Visitation Graphs: Interactive Ensemble Visualization with Visitation Maps

Authors: Anna-Pia Lohfink and Christoph Garth


Abstract
Modern applications in computational science are increasingly focusing on understanding uncertainty in models and parameters in simulations. In this paper, we describe visitation graphs, a novel approximation technique for the well-established visualization of steady 2D vector field ensembles using visitation maps. Our method allows the efficient and robust computation of arbitrary visitation maps for vector field ensembles. A pre-processing step that can be parallelized to a high degree eschews the needs to store every ensemble member and to re-calculate every time the start position of the visitation map is changed. Tradeoffs between accuracy of generated visitation maps on one side and pre-processing time and storage requirements on the other side can be made. Instead of downsampling ensemble members to a storable size, coarse visitation graphs can be stored, giving more accurate visitation maps while still reducing the amount of data. Thus accurate visitation map creation is possible for ensembles where the traditional visitation map creation is prohibitive. We describe our approach in detail and demonstrate its effectiveness and utility on examples from Computational Fluid Dynamics.

Cite as

Anna-Pia Lohfink and Christoph Garth. Visitation Graphs: Interactive Ensemble Visualization with Visitation Maps. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 4:1-4:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{lohfink_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.4,
  author =	{Lohfink, Anna-Pia and Garth, Christoph},
  title =	{{Visitation Graphs: Interactive Ensemble Visualization with Visitation Maps}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:20},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137533},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Uncertain flow visualization, Ensemble visualization, Visitation maps, In-situ}
}
Document
Optimized Routine of Machining Distortion Characterization Based on Gaussian Surface Curvature

Authors: Destiny R. Garcia, Barbara S. Linke, and Rida T. Farouki


Abstract
Machining distortion presents a significant problem in products with high residual stresses from materials processing and re-equilibration after machining removes a large part of the material volume and is common in the aerospace industries. While many papers research on mechanisms of machining distortion, few papers report on the measurement, processing and characterization of distortion data. Oftentimes only line plot data is used to give a maximum distortion value. This paper proposes a method of measurement tool selection, measurement parameter selection, data processing through filtering and leveling, and use of Bézier Surfaces and Gaussian Curvature for distortion characterization. The method is demonstrated with three sample pieces of different pocket geometry from quenched aluminum. It is apparent that samples with machining distortion can have complex surface shapes, where Bézier Surfaces and Gaussian Curvature provide more information than the commonly used 2D line plot data.

Cite as

Destiny R. Garcia, Barbara S. Linke, and Rida T. Farouki. Optimized Routine of Machining Distortion Characterization Based on Gaussian Surface Curvature. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 5:1-5:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{garcia_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.5,
  author =	{Garcia, Destiny R. and Linke, Barbara S. and Farouki, Rida T.},
  title =	{{Optimized Routine of Machining Distortion Characterization Based on Gaussian Surface Curvature}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:17},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137542},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Machining distortion, Metrology, Gaussian curvature}
}
Document
Interactive Quality Inspection of Measured Deviations in Sheet Metal Assemblies

Authors: Felix Claus, Hans Hagen, Viktor Leonhardt, Heike Leitte, and Bernd Hamann


Abstract
We present an exploratory data analysis approach for finite element (FE) simulations to interactively inspect measured deviations in sheet metals arising in automotive applications. Exterior car body parts consist of large visible surfaces, and strict tolerances must be met by them to satisfy both aesthetic requirements and quality performance requirements. To fulfill quality requirements like gap and flushness, exterior vehicle components have adjustable mechanical boundaries. These boundaries are used to influence the shape and position of a sheet metal part relative to its chassis. We introduce a method that supports an inspection engineer with an interactive framework that makes possible a detailed analysis of measured sheet metal deviation fields generated from 3D scans. An engineer can interactively change boundary conditions and obtains the resulting deviation field in real-time. Thus, it is possible to determine viable and desirable adjustments efficiently, leading to time and cost savings in the assembly process.

Cite as

Felix Claus, Hans Hagen, Viktor Leonhardt, Heike Leitte, and Bernd Hamann. Interactive Quality Inspection of Measured Deviations in Sheet Metal Assemblies. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 6:1-6:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{claus_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.6,
  author =	{Claus, Felix and Hagen, Hans and Leonhardt, Viktor and Leitte, Heike and Hamann, Bernd},
  title =	{{Interactive Quality Inspection of Measured Deviations in Sheet Metal Assemblies}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:18},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137554},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Data Analysis, Interactive Inspection, 3D-Metrology, Finite Element Simulation}
}
Document
Influence of Flank Face Structuring on Cooling, Tool Lifetime and Borehole Quality When Drilling Inconel 718: Physical Simulations and Experimental Validation

Authors: Daniel Müller, Benjamin Kirsch, and Jan C. Aurich


Abstract
When drilling difficult-to-cut materials such as Inconel 718, the drills are exposed to high thermomechanical loads. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the workpiece material, a large amount of the generated heat has to be dissipated by the metal working fluid (MWF). However, the cutting zone is located inside the workpiece, which makes it challenging to provide sufficient MWF to the cutting zone. To solve this, drills with internal cooling channels are commonly used. In this work, the influence of differently structured flank faces on cooling efficiency, tool life, process forces and borehole quality is investigated. The influence of the structures on the cooling was investigated by Computational-Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) simulations. These simulations allow a detailed analysis of the flow conditions inside the borehole and showed that the structuring improved flow conditions, especially near the thermally highly loaded main cutting edge. The improved flow conditions resulted in an extension of the tool life by up to 22 % compared to unstructured drills in experimental investigations.

Cite as

Daniel Müller, Benjamin Kirsch, and Jan C. Aurich. Influence of Flank Face Structuring on Cooling, Tool Lifetime and Borehole Quality When Drilling Inconel 718: Physical Simulations and Experimental Validation. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 7:1-7:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{muller_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.7,
  author =	{M\"{u}ller, Daniel and Kirsch, Benjamin and Aurich, Jan C.},
  title =	{{Influence of Flank Face Structuring on Cooling, Tool Lifetime and Borehole Quality When Drilling Inconel 718: Physical Simulations and Experimental Validation}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:17},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137562},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: drilling, cooling, CFD}
}
Document
Determination of Aggregate Elastic Properties of Powder-Beds in Additive Manufacturing Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Ardalan R. Sofi and Bahram Ravani


Abstract
The most popular strategy for the estimation of effective elastic properties of powder-beds in Additively Manufactured structures (AM structures) is through either the Finite Element Method (FEM) or the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Both of these techniques, however, are computationally expensive for practical applications. This paper presents a novel Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) regression approach to estimate the effective elastic properties of powder-beds in AM structures. In this approach, the time-consuming DEM is used for CNN training purposes and not at run time. The DEM is used to model the interactions of powder particles and to evaluate the macro-level continuum-mechanical state variables (volume average of stress and strain). For the Neural Network training purposes, the DEM code creates a dataset, including hundreds of AM structures with their corresponding mechanical properties. The approach utilizes methods from deep learning to train a CNN capable of reducing the computational time needed to predict the effective elastic properties of the aggregate. The saving in computational time could reach 99.9995% compared to DEM, and on average, the difference in predicted effective elastic properties between the DEM code and trained CNN is less than 4%. The resulting sub-second level computational time can be considered as a step towards the development of a near real-time process control system capable of predicting the effective elastic properties of the aggregate at any given stage of the manufacturing process.

Cite as

Ardalan R. Sofi and Bahram Ravani. Determination of Aggregate Elastic Properties of Powder-Beds in Additive Manufacturing Using Convolutional Neural Networks. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 8:1-8:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{sofi_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.8,
  author =	{Sofi, Ardalan R. and Ravani, Bahram},
  title =	{{Determination of Aggregate Elastic Properties of Powder-Beds in Additive Manufacturing Using Convolutional Neural Networks}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:17},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137574},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Convolutional Neural Network, Homogenization, Discrete Element Method, Powder-Bed}
}
Document
A Phase Field Modeling Approach of Crack Growth in Materials with Anisotropic Fracture Toughness

Authors: Christoph Schreiber, Tim Ettrich, Charlotte Kuhn, and Ralf Müller


Abstract
Within this contribution, we present a diffuse interface approach for the simulation of crack nucleation and growth in materials, which incorporates an orientation dependency of the fracture toughness. After outlining the basic motivation for the model from an engineering standpoint, the phase field paradigm for fracture is introduced. Further, a specific phase field model for brittle fracture is reviewed, where we focus on the meaning of the auxiliary parameter differentiating between material phases and the coupling of such a parameter to continuum equations in order to obtain the characteristic self organizing model properties. This specific model, as will be explained, provides the phenomenological and methodical basis for the presented enhancement. The formulation of an appropriate evolution equation in terms of a Ginzburg-Landau type equation will be highlighted and several comments on sharp interface models will be made to present a brief comparison. Following up on the basics we then introduce the formulation of a modified version of the model, which additionally to the handling of cracks in linear elastic materials under quasi static loading is also capable of taking into account the effect of resistance variation with respect to the potential crack extension direction. The strong and also the weak forms of the respective governing equations corresponding to the developed anisotropic phase field model are presented. Utilizing the weak formulation as starting point for the discretization of the two fields (displacement field and the phase field), the computational framework in terms of finite elements is introduced. We finally explain several test cases investigated within simulations and discuss the corresponding numerical results. Besides examples, which are set up to illustrate the general model properties, a comparison with crack paths obtained by experimental investigations will be presented in order to show the potential of the developed phase field model.

Cite as

Christoph Schreiber, Tim Ettrich, Charlotte Kuhn, and Ralf Müller. A Phase Field Modeling Approach of Crack Growth in Materials with Anisotropic Fracture Toughness. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 9:1-9:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{schreiber_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.9,
  author =	{Schreiber, Christoph and Ettrich, Tim and Kuhn, Charlotte and M\"{u}ller, Ralf},
  title =	{{A Phase Field Modeling Approach of Crack Growth in Materials with Anisotropic Fracture Toughness}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:17},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137581},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Phase field modeling, Brittle fracture, Anisotropic fracture toughness, Finite elements}
}
Document
Is Smaller Always Better? - Evaluating Video Compression Techniques for Simulation Ensembles

Authors: Patrick Ruediger, Christoph Garth, Hans Hagen, and Heike Leitte


Abstract
We provide an evaluation of the applicability of video compression techniques for compressing visualization image databases that are often used for in situ visualization. Considering relevant practical implementation aspects, we identify relevant compression parameters, and evaluate video compression for several test cases, involving several data sets and visualization methods; we use three different video codecs. To quantify the benefits and drawbacks of video compression, we employ metrics for image quality, compression rate, and performance. The experiments discussed provide insight into good choices of parameter values, working well in the considered cases.

Cite as

Patrick Ruediger, Christoph Garth, Hans Hagen, and Heike Leitte. Is Smaller Always Better? - Evaluating Video Compression Techniques for Simulation Ensembles. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 10:1-10:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{ruediger_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.10,
  author =	{Ruediger, Patrick and Garth, Christoph and Hagen, Hans and Leitte, Heike},
  title =	{{Is Smaller Always Better? - Evaluating Video Compression Techniques for Simulation Ensembles}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:18},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137591},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Image Database, CinemaDB, Video Compression, Evaluation, Benchmark, In-situ}
}
Document
Finite Element Simulation Combination to Predict the Distortion of Thin Walled Milled Aluminum Workpieces as a Result of Machining Induced Residual Stresses

Authors: Daniel Weber, Benjamin Kirsch, Christopher R. Chighizola, Julianne E. Jonsson, Christopher R. D’Elia, Barbara S. Linke, Michael R. Hill, and Jan C. Aurich


Abstract
Machining induced residual stresses (MIRS) are a main driver for distortion of monolithic thin walled aluminum workpieces. A typical machining process for manufacturing such geometries for the aerospace industry is milling. In order to avoid high costs due to remanufacturing or part rejection, a simulation combination, consisting of two different finite element method (FEM) models, is developed to predict the part distortion due to MIRS. First, a 3D FEM cutting simulation is developed to predict the residual stresses due to machining. This simulation avoids cost intensive residual stress measurements. The milling process of the aluminum alloy AA7050-T7451 with a regular end mill is simulated. The simulation output, MIRS, forces and temperatures, is validated by face milling experiments on aluminum. The model takes mechanical dynamic effects, thermomechanical coupling, material properties and a damage law into account. Second, a subsequent finite element simulation, characterized by a static, linear elastic model, where the simulated MIRS from the cutting model are used as an input and the distortion of the workpiece is calculated, is presented. The predicted distortion is compared to an additional experiment, where a 1 mm thick wafer was removed at the milled surface of the aluminum workpiece. Furthermore, a thin walled component that represents a down scaled version of an aerospace component is manufactured and its distortion is analyzed. The results show that MIRS could be forecasted with moderate accuracy, which leads to the conclusion that the FEM cutting model needs to be improved in order to use the MIRS for a correct prediction of the distortion with the help of the linear elastic FEM model. The linear elastic model on the other hand is able to predict the part distortion with higher accuracy when using measured data instead of MIRS from the cutting simulation.

Cite as

Daniel Weber, Benjamin Kirsch, Christopher R. Chighizola, Julianne E. Jonsson, Christopher R. D’Elia, Barbara S. Linke, Michael R. Hill, and Jan C. Aurich. Finite Element Simulation Combination to Predict the Distortion of Thin Walled Milled Aluminum Workpieces as a Result of Machining Induced Residual Stresses. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 11:1-11:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{weber_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.11,
  author =	{Weber, Daniel and Kirsch, Benjamin and Chighizola, Christopher R. and Jonsson, Julianne E. and D’Elia, Christopher R. and Linke, Barbara S. and Hill, Michael R. and Aurich, Jan C.},
  title =	{{Finite Element Simulation Combination to Predict the Distortion of Thin Walled Milled Aluminum Workpieces as a Result of Machining Induced Residual Stresses}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:21},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137604},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: Machining induced residual stresses, distortion, Finite element method simulation}
}
Document
Modeling of Nanoindentation in Ni-Graphene Nanocomposites: A Molecular Dynamics Sensitivity Study

Authors: Vardan Hoviki Vardanyan and Herbert M. Urbassek


Abstract
Using molecular dynamics simulation, we perform nanoindentation simulations on a Ni-graphene model system, in which a graphene flake coats the grain boundary of a Ni bi-crystal. Material strengthening or weakening by inclusion of graphene is discussed with the help of the force needed to indent to a specified depth. By varying the depth of the graphene flake with respect to the indentation depth we identify the distance up to which graphene influences the indentation behavior. In addition, we vary the details of the modeling of the graphene flake in the matrix metal and determine their influence on the performance of the nanocomposite. Our results indicate that the modeling results are robust against variations in the modeling of the graphene flake.

Cite as

Vardan Hoviki Vardanyan and Herbert M. Urbassek. Modeling of Nanoindentation in Ni-Graphene Nanocomposites: A Molecular Dynamics Sensitivity Study. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 12:1-12:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{vardanyan_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.12,
  author =	{Vardanyan, Vardan Hoviki and Urbassek, Herbert M.},
  title =	{{Modeling of Nanoindentation in Ni-Graphene Nanocomposites: A Molecular Dynamics Sensitivity Study}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:13},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137614},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: molecular dynamics, nickel-graphene composites, dislocations, nanoindentation}
}
Document
An Improved Particle Finite Element Method for the Simulation of Machining Processes

Authors: Xialong Ye, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Prieto, and Ralf Müller


Abstract
Machining is one of the most common and versatile manufacturing processes in industry, e.g. automotive industry and aerospace industry. But classical numerical methods such as the Finite Element Method (FEM) have difficulties to simulate it, because the material undergoes large deformations, large strain, large strain rates and high temperatures in this process. One option to simulate such kind of problems is the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) which combines the advantages of continuum mechanics and discrete modeling techniques. In this study we develop the PFEM further and call it the Adaptive Particle Finite Element Method (A-PFEM). Compared to the PFEM the A-PFEM enables insertion of particles and improves significantly the mesh quality along the numerical simulation. The A-PFEM improves accuracy and precision, while it decreases computing time and resolves the phenomena that take place in machining. Because metal cutting involves plastic deformation we resort to the J₂ flow theory with isotropic hardening. At last some numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the PFEM and A-PFEM.

Cite as

Xialong Ye, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Prieto, and Ralf Müller. An Improved Particle Finite Element Method for the Simulation of Machining Processes. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 13:1-13:9, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{ye_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.13,
  author =	{Ye, Xialong and Prieto, Juan Manuel Rodr{\'\i}guez and M\"{u}ller, Ralf},
  title =	{{An Improved Particle Finite Element Method for the Simulation of Machining Processes}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:9},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137628},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Particle Finite Element Method, Alpha Shape Method, Metal Cutting}
}
Document
Physical Modeling of Full-Field Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: Andrej Keksel, Georgis Bulun, Matthias Eifler, Anis Idrizovic, and Jörg Seewig


Abstract
In this paper, a physical model of full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography (FF-TD OCT), which focuses the requirements of measuring inner textures of flexible layered samples in industrial applications, is developed and validated by reference measurements. Both the operating principle and the overall design of a FF-TD OCT correspond to that of classical white light interferometry (WLI), commonly used for the measurement of areal micro-topographies. The presented model accounts for optical and geometrical properties of the system, multiple scattering of light in turbid media and interference of partially coherent light. Applying this model, virtual measurements are used to exemplarily investigate the extent to which the principles of classical WLI can be directly transferred to obtain layer thickness measurements by simulating the use of a simple low-cost WLI system as OCT. Results indicate that a currently existing instrument setup can only be used as OCT to a very limited extent but not in general due to its initial design as a WLI.

Cite as

Andrej Keksel, Georgis Bulun, Matthias Eifler, Anis Idrizovic, and Jörg Seewig. Physical Modeling of Full-Field Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 14:1-14:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{keksel_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.14,
  author =	{Keksel, Andrej and Bulun, Georgis and Eifler, Matthias and Idrizovic, Anis and Seewig, J\"{o}rg},
  title =	{{Physical Modeling of Full-Field Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:22},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137634},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: Optical coherence tomography, full-field time-domain OCT, virtual measuring, optical measurement technology, physical modeling}
}
Document
Physics Simulation of Material Flows: Effects on the Performance of a Production System

Authors: Moritz Glatt, Bahram Ravani, and Jan C. Aurich


Abstract
In cyber-physical production systems, material flows show complexity due to varying physical aspects of transported work pieces and autonomously selected transport routes. As a result, physically induced disturbances that may lead to delays or damages are hard to predict. The on-line usage of a physics engine offers potential to derive material flow parameters that enable safe transports with optimized accelerations. Previous work showed the feasibility of this approach and potential operational benefits through faster material flows. In consequence, the scope of this paper is to apply discrete-event simulation to investigate whether physics simulation of material flows leads to positive impacts on production system performance indicators such as throughput times and capacity utilization. The results indicate that increased velocity and acceleration of material flows can positively influence these indicators. In consequence, applying physics simulation to ensure safe transports with such high velocities and accelerations can improve the overall performance of a production system.

Cite as

Moritz Glatt, Bahram Ravani, and Jan C. Aurich. Physics Simulation of Material Flows: Effects on the Performance of a Production System. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 15:1-15:26, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{glatt_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.15,
  author =	{Glatt, Moritz and Ravani, Bahram and Aurich, Jan C.},
  title =	{{Physics Simulation of Material Flows: Effects on the Performance of a Production System}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:26},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137640},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Physics simulation, discrete-event simulation, cyber-physical production systems}
}
Document
Physical Modeling of Process Forces in Grinding

Authors: Praveen Sridhar, Daniel Mannherz, Raphael Bilz, Kristin M. de Payrebrune, Mahesh R.G. Prasad, and Juan Manuel Rodríguez Prieto


Abstract
This paper deals with material removal mechanisms in grinding by considering single grit-workpiece interactions. Individual investigations were performed both experimentally and using finite element simulations. Firstly, a comparison between the Johnson-Cooke material model and a Crystal Plasticity finite element method was performed with the help of micro-indentation experiments. Here the research question was answered if an anisotropic material model better describe the grinding process and process forces compared to an isotropic material model. Secondly, four discretization approaches were employed: pure Lagrangian (LAG), Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE), Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), to simulate a micro-cutting operation of A2024 T351 aluminium. This study aims to compare the conventional approaches (LAG and ALE) to newer approaches (PFEM and SPH). The orthogonal cutting models were benchmarked against a micro-cutting experiment presented in literature, by comparing the obtained cutting and passive forces. The study was then extended to negative rake angles to study the effect on the discretization approaches for grinding. Thirdly, scratch experiments were investigated for a brittle material sodalime glass and A2024 T351 aluminium. Effects of the linear speed of the device, depth of cut, and conical tool angle were analyzed and tendencies are built. Finally, a realistic simulation of the manufacturing process of a grinding wheel was developed, starting with the raw material, compression, sintering, and dressing until the final grinding surface. As a result of the simulations, virtual grinding wheel topographies can be visualized and analyzed with regard to the output variables from grinding wheels such as bonding strength and static grain count. The individual research studies help in understanding the material removal mechanisms in a single grit scratch process as well as in the understanding of the overall grinding wheel topography. This in turn helps in the developing an overall physical force model for scratching/grinding to predict mechanical output parameters and hence reduce the need for experimentation.

Cite as

Praveen Sridhar, Daniel Mannherz, Raphael Bilz, Kristin M. de Payrebrune, Mahesh R.G. Prasad, and Juan Manuel Rodríguez Prieto. Physical Modeling of Process Forces in Grinding. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 16:1-16:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{sridhar_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.16,
  author =	{Sridhar, Praveen and Mannherz, Daniel and Bilz, Raphael and de Payrebrune, Kristin M. and Prasad, Mahesh R.G. and Prieto, Juan Manuel Rodr{\'\i}guez},
  title =	{{Physical Modeling of Process Forces in Grinding}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:20},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137651},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: grinding, single grit approach, finite element method, smooth particle hydrodynamics, particle finite element method, scratch experiments, virtual grinding wheel model}
}
Document
Molecular Simulation Study on the Influence of the Scratching Velocity on Nanoscopic Contact Processes

Authors: Sebastian Schmitt, Simon Stephan, Benjamin Kirsch, Jan C. Aurich, Eberhard Kerscher, Herbert M. Urbassek, and Hans Hasse


Abstract
The influence of the scratching velocity on mechanical and thermal properties of a nanoscopic contact process was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations with different scratching velocities were conducted in dry and lubricated systems. The contact process consisted of a lateral scratching of a spherical indenter on a planar substrate. All molecular interactions were described by the Lennard-Jones truncated and shifted potential. The forces on the indenter, the coefficient of friction and the work done by the indenter as well as the power applied on the indenter were sampled. Furthermore, an analysis of thermal properties was conducted: The change of the energy of the substrate, the indenter and the fluid was evaluated and the local temperature field was determined. The forces, the coefficient of friction and the work done by the indenter show practically no influence of the scratching velocity. The work done by the indenter was found to be the same for all velocities. As a consequence, the power supplied to the system depends linearly on the scratching velocity, which affects the temperature of the contact zone. As expected, the presence of a lubricant reduces the temperature of the substrate in the vicinity of the contact.

Cite as

Sebastian Schmitt, Simon Stephan, Benjamin Kirsch, Jan C. Aurich, Eberhard Kerscher, Herbert M. Urbassek, and Hans Hasse. Molecular Simulation Study on the Influence of the Scratching Velocity on Nanoscopic Contact Processes. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 17:1-17:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{schmitt_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.17,
  author =	{Schmitt, Sebastian and Stephan, Simon and Kirsch, Benjamin and Aurich, Jan C. and Kerscher, Eberhard and Urbassek, Herbert M. and Hasse, Hans},
  title =	{{Molecular Simulation Study on the Influence of the Scratching Velocity on Nanoscopic Contact Processes}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:16},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137669},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Nanotribology, Friction, Scratching, Lubrication, Lennard-Jones Potential}
}
Document
The Discrete Morse Complex of Images: Algorithms, Modeling and Applications

Authors: Ricardo Dutra da Silva, Helio Pedrini, and Bernd Hamann


Abstract
The Morse complex can be used for studying the topology of a function, e.g., an image or terrain height field when understood as bivariate functions. We present an algorithm for the computation of the discrete Morse complex of two-dimensional images using an edge-based data structure. By using this data structure, it is possible to perform local operations efficiently, which is important to construct the complex and make the structure useful for areas like visualization, persistent homology computation, or construction of a topological hierarchy. We present theoretical and applied results to demonstrate benefits and use of our method.

Cite as

Ricardo Dutra da Silva, Helio Pedrini, and Bernd Hamann. The Discrete Morse Complex of Images: Algorithms, Modeling and Applications. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 18:1-18:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{dasilva_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.18,
  author =	{da Silva, Ricardo Dutra and Pedrini, Helio and Hamann, Bernd},
  title =	{{The Discrete Morse Complex of Images: Algorithms, Modeling and Applications}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:19},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137679},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: Discrete Morse Complex, Image Topology, Cell Complexes}
}
Document
Interpolation of Scientific Image Databases

Authors: Eric Georg Kinner, Jonas Lukasczyk, David Honegger Rogers, Ross Maciejewski, and Christoph Garth


Abstract
This paper explores how recent convolutional neural network (CNN)-based techniques can be used to interpolate images inside scientific image databases. These databases are frequently used for the interactive visualization of large-scale simulations, where images correspond to samples of the parameter space (e.g., timesteps, isovalues, thresholds, etc.) and the visualization space (e.g., camera locations, clipping planes, etc.). These databases can be browsed post hoc along the sampling axis to emulate real-time interaction with large-scale datasets. However, the resulting databases are limited to their contained images, i.e., the sampling points. In this paper, we explore how efficiently and accurately CNN-based techniques can derive new images by interpolating database elements. We demonstrate on several real-world examples that the size of databases can be further reduced by dropping samples that can be interpolated post hoc with an acceptable error, which we measure qualitatively and quantitatively.

Cite as

Eric Georg Kinner, Jonas Lukasczyk, David Honegger Rogers, Ross Maciejewski, and Christoph Garth. Interpolation of Scientific Image Databases. In 2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 89, pp. 19:1-19:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{kinner_et_al:OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.19,
  author =	{Kinner, Eric Georg and Lukasczyk, Jonas and Rogers, David Honegger and Maciejewski, Ross and Garth, Christoph},
  title =	{{Interpolation of Scientific Image Databases}},
  booktitle =	{2nd International Conference of the DFG International Research Training Group 2057 – Physical Modeling for Virtual Manufacturing (iPMVM 2020)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:17},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-183-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{89},
  editor =	{Garth, Christoph and Aurich, Jan C. and Linke, Barbara and M\"{u}ller, Ralf and Ravani, Bahram and Weber, Gunther H. and Kirsch, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137686},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.iPMVM.2020.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: Image Interpolation, Image Database, Cinema Database}
}

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