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Knowledge Engineering Using Large Language Models

Authors Bradley P. Allen , Lise Stork , Paul Groth

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Bradley P. Allen
  • University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Lise Stork
  • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Paul Groth
  • University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands


This work has benefited from Dagstuhl Seminar 22372 "Knowledge Graphs and Their Role in the Knowledge Engineering of the 21st Century." We also thank Frank van Harmelen for conversations on this topic.

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Bradley P. Allen, Lise Stork, and Paul Groth. Knowledge Engineering Using Large Language Models. In Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge (TGDK), Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 3:1-3:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


Knowledge engineering is a discipline that focuses on the creation and maintenance of processes that generate and apply knowledge. Traditionally, knowledge engineering approaches have focused on knowledge expressed in formal languages. The emergence of large language models and their capabilities to effectively work with natural language, in its broadest sense, raises questions about the foundations and practice of knowledge engineering. Here, we outline the potential role of LLMs in knowledge engineering, identifying two central directions: 1) creating hybrid neuro-symbolic knowledge systems; and 2) enabling knowledge engineering in natural language. Additionally, we formulate key open research questions to tackle these directions.

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ACM Subject Classification
  • Computing methodologies → Natural language processing
  • Computing methodologies → Machine learning
  • Computing methodologies → Philosophical/theoretical foundations of artificial intelligence
  • Software and its engineering → Software development methods
  • knowledge engineering
  • large language models


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