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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 309, 15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024)

For performance and verification in machine learning, new methods have recently been proposed that optimise learning systems to satisfy formally expressed logical properties. Among these methods, differentiable logics (DLs) are used to translate propositional or first-order formulae into loss functions deployed for optimisation in machine learning. At the same time, recent attempts to give programming language support for verification of neural networks showed that DLs can be used to compile verification properties to machine-learning backends. This situation is calling for stronger guarantees about the soundness of such compilers, the soundness and compositionality of DLs, and the differentiability and performance of the resulting loss functions. In this paper, we propose an approach to formalise existing DLs using the Mathematical Components library in the Coq proof assistant. Thanks to this formalisation, we are able to give uniform semantics to otherwise disparate DLs, give formal proofs to existing informal arguments, find errors in previous work, and provide formal proofs to missing conjectured properties. This work is meant as a stepping stone for the development of programming language support for verification of machine learning.

Reynald Affeldt, Alessandro Bruni, Ekaterina Komendantskaya, Natalia Ślusarz, and Kathrin Stark. Taming Differentiable Logics with Coq Formalisation. In 15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 309, pp. 4:1-4:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{affeldt_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2024.4, author = {Affeldt, Reynald and Bruni, Alessandro and Komendantskaya, Ekaterina and \'{S}lusarz, Natalia and Stark, Kathrin}, title = {{Taming Differentiable Logics with Coq Formalisation}}, booktitle = {15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024)}, pages = {4:1--4:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-337-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {309}, editor = {Bertot, Yves and Kutsia, Temur and Norrish, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2024.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-207325}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2024.4}, annote = {Keywords: Machine Learning, Loss Functions, Differentiable Logics, Logic and Semantics, Interactive Theorem Proving} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 309, 15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024)

Formalization of real analysis offers a chance to rebuild traditional proofs of important theorems as unambiguous theories that can be interactively explored. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the Lebesgue Differentiation Theorem formalized in the Coq proof assistant, from which the first Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) for the Lebesgue integral is obtained as a corollary. Proving the first FTC in this way has the advantage of decomposing into loosely-coupled theories of moderate size and of independent interest that lend themselves well to incremental and collaborative development. We explain how we formalize all the topological constructs and all the standard lemmas needed to eventually relate the definitions of derivability and of Lebesgue integration of MathComp-Analysis, a formalization of analysis developed on top of the Mathematical Components library. In the course of this experiment, we substantially enrich MathComp-Analysis and even devise a new proof for Urysohn’s lemma.

Reynald Affeldt and Zachary Stone. A Comprehensive Overview of the Lebesgue Differentiation Theorem in Coq. In 15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 309, pp. 5:1-5:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{affeldt_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2024.5, author = {Affeldt, Reynald and Stone, Zachary}, title = {{A Comprehensive Overview of the Lebesgue Differentiation Theorem in Coq}}, booktitle = {15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024)}, pages = {5:1--5:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-337-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {309}, editor = {Bertot, Yves and Kutsia, Temur and Norrish, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2024.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-207330}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2024.5}, annote = {Keywords: Coq proof assistant, Mathematical Components library, Lebesgue integral, fundamental theorem of calculus} }

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Short Paper

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 309, 15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024)

We report the results of a verification experiment on an algorithm for robust mean estimation, i.e., an algorithm that computes a mean in the presence of outliers. We formalize the algorithm in the Coq proof assistant and devise a pragmatic approach for identifying and solving issues related to the choice of bounds. To keep our formalization succinct and generic, we recast the original argument using an existing library for finite probabilities that we extend with reusable lemmas. To formalize the original algorithm, which relies on a subtle convergence argument, we observe that by adding suitable termination checks, we can turn it into a well-founded recursion without losing its original properties. We also exploit a tactic for solving real-valued inequalities by approximation to heuristically fix inaccurate constant values in the original proof.

Reynald Affeldt, Clark Barrett, Alessandro Bruni, Ieva Daukantas, Harun Khan, Takafumi Saikawa, and Carsten Schürmann. Robust Mean Estimation by All Means (Short Paper). In 15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 309, pp. 39:1-39:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{affeldt_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2024.39, author = {Affeldt, Reynald and Barrett, Clark and Bruni, Alessandro and Daukantas, Ieva and Khan, Harun and Saikawa, Takafumi and Sch\"{u}rmann, Carsten}, title = {{Robust Mean Estimation by All Means}}, booktitle = {15th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2024)}, pages = {39:1--39:8}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-337-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {309}, editor = {Bertot, Yves and Kutsia, Temur and Norrish, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2024.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-207679}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2024.39}, annote = {Keywords: robust statistics, probability theory, formal verification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 188, 26th International Conference on Types for Proofs and Programs (TYPES 2020)

There is a recent interest for the verification of monadic programs using proof assistants. This line of research raises the question of the integration of monad transformers, a standard technique to combine monads. In this paper, we extend Monae, a Coq library for monadic equational reasoning, with monad transformers and we explain the benefits of this extension. Our starting point is the existing theory of modular monad transformers, which provides a uniform treatment of operations. Using this theory, we simplify the formalization of models in Monae and we propose an approach to support monadic equational reasoning in the presence of monad transformers. We also use Monae to revisit the lifting theorems of modular monad transformers by providing equational proofs and explaining how to patch a known bug using a non-standard use of Coq that combines impredicative polymorphism and parametricity.

Reynald Affeldt and David Nowak. Extending Equational Monadic Reasoning with Monad Transformers. In 26th International Conference on Types for Proofs and Programs (TYPES 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 188, pp. 2:1-2:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{affeldt_et_al:LIPIcs.TYPES.2020.2, author = {Affeldt, Reynald and Nowak, David}, title = {{Extending Equational Monadic Reasoning with Monad Transformers}}, booktitle = {26th International Conference on Types for Proofs and Programs (TYPES 2020)}, pages = {2:1--2:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-182-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {188}, editor = {de'Liguoro, Ugo and Berardi, Stefano and Altenkirch, Thorsten}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TYPES.2020.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138810}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TYPES.2020.2}, annote = {Keywords: monads, monad transformers, Coq, impredicativity, parametricity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 141, 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)

Succinct data structures give space-efficient representations of large amounts of data without sacrificing performance. They rely on cleverly designed data representations and algorithms. We present here the formalization in Coq/SSReflect of two different tree-based succinct representations and their accompanying algorithms. One is the Level-Order Unary Degree Sequence, which encodes the structure of a tree in breadth-first order as a sequence of bits, where access operations can be defined in terms of Rank and Select, which work in constant time for static bit sequences. The other represents dynamic bit sequences as binary balanced trees, where Rank and Select present a low logarithmic overhead compared to their static versions, and with efficient insertion and deletion. The two can be stacked to provide a dynamic representation of dictionaries for instance. While both representations are well-known, we believe this to be their first formalization and a needed step towards provably-safe implementations of big data.

Reynald Affeldt, Jacques Garrigue, Xuanrui Qi, and Kazunari Tanaka. Proving Tree Algorithms for Succinct Data Structures. In 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 141, pp. 5:1-5:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{affeldt_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2019.5, author = {Affeldt, Reynald and Garrigue, Jacques and Qi, Xuanrui and Tanaka, Kazunari}, title = {{Proving Tree Algorithms for Succinct Data Structures}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)}, pages = {5:1--5:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-122-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {141}, editor = {Harrison, John and O'Leary, John and Tolmach, Andrew}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110609}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.5}, annote = {Keywords: Coq, small-scale reflection, succinct data structures, LOUDS, bit vectors, self balancing trees} }

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