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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

Graph spanners are well-studied and widely used both in theory and practice. In a recent breakthrough, Chechik and Wulff-Nilsen [Shiri Chechik and Christian Wulff-Nilsen, 2018] improved the state-of-the-art for light spanners by constructing a (2k-1)(1+epsilon)-spanner with O(n^(1+1/k)) edges and O_epsilon(n^(1/k)) lightness. Soon after, Filtser and Solomon [Arnold Filtser and Shay Solomon, 2016] showed that the classic greedy spanner construction achieves the same bounds. The major drawback of the greedy spanner is its running time of O(mn^(1+1/k)) (which is faster than [Shiri Chechik and Christian Wulff-Nilsen, 2018]). This makes the construction impractical even for graphs of moderate size. Much faster spanner constructions do exist but they only achieve lightness Omega_epsilon(kn^(1/k)), even when randomization is used.
The contribution of this paper is deterministic spanner constructions that are fast, and achieve similar bounds as the state-of-the-art slower constructions. Our first result is an O_epsilon(n^(2+1/k+epsilon')) time spanner construction which achieves the state-of-the-art bounds. Our second result is an O_epsilon(m + n log n) time construction of a spanner with (2k-1)(1+epsilon) stretch, O(log k * n^(1+1/k) edges and O_epsilon(log k * n^(1/k)) lightness. This is an exponential improvement in the dependence on k compared to the previous result with such running time. Finally, for the important special case where k=log n, for every constant epsilon>0, we provide an O(m+n^(1+epsilon)) time construction that produces an O(log n)-spanner with O(n) edges and O(1) lightness which is asymptotically optimal. This is the first known sub-quadratic construction of such a spanner for any k = omega(1).
To achieve our constructions, we show a novel deterministic incremental approximate distance oracle. Our new oracle is crucial in our construction, as known randomized dynamic oracles require the assumption of a non-adaptive adversary. This is a strong assumption, which has seen recent attention in prolific venues. Our new oracle allows the order of the edge insertions to not be fixed in advance, which is critical as our spanner algorithm chooses which edges to insert based on the answers to distance queries. We believe our new oracle is of independent interest.

Stephen Alstrup, Søren Dahlgaard, Arnold Filtser, Morten Stöckel, and Christian Wulff-Nilsen. Constructing Light Spanners Deterministically in Near-Linear Time. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 4:1-4:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{alstrup_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.4, author = {Alstrup, Stephen and Dahlgaard, S{\o}ren and Filtser, Arnold and St\"{o}ckel, Morten and Wulff-Nilsen, Christian}, title = {{Constructing Light Spanners Deterministically in Near-Linear Time}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {4:1--4:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111255}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.4}, annote = {Keywords: Spanners, Light Spanners, Efficient Construction, Deterministic Dynamic Distance Oracle} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

A graph U is an induced universal graph for a family F of graphs if every graph in F is a vertex-induced subgraph of U.
We give upper and lower bounds for the size of induced universal graphs for the family of graphs with n vertices of maximum degree D. Our new bounds improve several previous results except for the special cases where D is either near-constant or almost n/2. For constant even D Butler [Graphs and Combinatorics 2009] has shown O(n^(D/2)) and recently Alon and Nenadov [SODA 2017] showed the same bound for constant odd D. For constant D Butler also gave a matching lower bound. For generals graphs, which corresponds to D = n, Alon [Geometric and Functional Analysis, to appear] proved the existence of an induced universal graph with (1+o(1)) \cdot 2^((n-1)/2) vertices, leading to a smaller constant than in the previously best known bound of 16 * 2^(n/2) by Alstrup, Kaplan, Thorup, and Zwick [STOC 2015].
In this paper we give the following lower and upper bound of
binom(floor(n/2))(floor(D/2)) * n^(-O(1))
and
binom(floor(n/2))(floor(D/2)) * 2^(O(sqrt(D log D) * log(n/D))),
respectively, where the upper bound is the main contribution. The proof that it is an induced universal graph relies on a randomized argument. We also give a deterministic upper bound of O(n^k / (k-1)!). These upper bounds are the best known when D <= n/2 - tilde-Omega(n^(3/4)) and either D is even and D = omega(1) or D is odd and D = omega(log n/log log n). In this range we improve asymptotically on the previous best known results by Butler [Graphs and Combinatorics 2009], Esperet, Arnaud and Ochem [IPL 2008], Adjiashvili and Rotbart [ICALP 2014], Alon and Nenadov [SODA 2017], and Alon [Geometric and Functional Analysis, to appear].

Mikkel Abrahamsen, Stephen Alstrup, Jacob Holm, Mathias Bæk Tejs Knudsen, and Morten Stöckel. Near-Optimal Induced Universal Graphs for Bounded Degree Graphs. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 128:1-128:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{abrahamsen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.128, author = {Abrahamsen, Mikkel and Alstrup, Stephen and Holm, Jacob and Knudsen, Mathias B{\ae}k Tejs and St\"{o}ckel, Morten}, title = {{Near-Optimal Induced Universal Graphs for Bounded Degree Graphs}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {128:1--128:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.128}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74114}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.128}, annote = {Keywords: Adjacency labeling schemes, Bounded degree graphs, Induced universal graphs, Distributed computing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes.
A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille et al., J. Alg., 2004] and an upper bound by Peleg [Peleg, J. Graph Theory, 2000] establish that labels must use Theta(log^2(n)) bits. Gavoille et al. [Gavoille et al., ESA, 2001] show that for very small approximate stretch, labels use Theta(log(n) log(log(n))) bits. Several other papers investigate various variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003].
We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4*log^2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2*log^2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + epsilon)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta(log(n)) bits for constant epsilon > 0. (1 + epsilon)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004].
In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels must have size 2*log(n) - Theta(log(log(n))). For simple paths with k nodes and edge weights in [1,n], we show that labels must have size (k - 1)/k*log(n) + Theta(log(k)).

Stephen Alstrup, Inge Li Gørtz, Esben Bistrup Halvorsen, and Ely Porat. Distance Labeling Schemes for Trees. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 132:1-132:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{alstrup_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.132, author = {Alstrup, Stephen and G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup and Porat, Ely}, title = {{Distance Labeling Schemes for Trees}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {132:1--132:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.132}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62661}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.132}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed computing, Distance labeling, Graph theory, Routing, Trees} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

A distance labeling scheme labels the n nodes of a graph with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine the distance in the graph between the two nodes by looking only at the labels. A D-preserving distance labeling scheme only returns precise distances between pairs of nodes that are at distance at least D from each other. In this paper we consider distance labeling schemes for the classical case of unweighted and undirected graphs.
We present a O(n/D * log^2(D)) bit D-preserving distance labeling scheme, improving the previous bound by Bollobás et al. [SIAM J. Discrete Math. 2005]. We also give an almost matching lower bound of Omega(n/D). With our D-preserving distance labeling scheme as a building block, we additionally achieve the following results:
1. We present the first distance labeling scheme of size o(n) for sparse graphs (and hence bounded degree graphs). This addresses an open problem by Gavoille et. al. [J. Algo. 2004], hereby separating the complexity from distance labeling in general graphs which require Omega(n) bits, Moon [Proc. of Glasgow Math. Association 1965].
2. For approximate r-additive labeling schemes, that return distances within an additive error of r we show a scheme of size
O(n/r * polylog(r*log(n))/log(n)) for r >= 2. This improves on the current best bound of O(n/r) by Alstrup et al. [SODA 2016] for sub-polynomial r, and is a generalization of a result by Gawrychowski et al. [arXiv preprint 2015] who showed this for r=2.

Stephen Alstrup, Søren Dahlgaard, Mathias Bæk Tejs Knudsen, and Ely Porat. Sublinear Distance Labeling. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 5:1-5:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{alstrup_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.5, author = {Alstrup, Stephen and Dahlgaard, S{\o}ren and Knudsen, Mathias B{\ae}k Tejs and Porat, Ely}, title = {{Sublinear Distance Labeling}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {5:1--5:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63479}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.5}, annote = {Keywords: Graph labeling schemes, Distance labeling, Graph theory, Sparse graphs} }

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