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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We present a framework for speeding up the time it takes to sample from discrete distributions μ defined over subsets of size k of a ground set of n elements, in the regime where k is much smaller than n. We show that if one has access to estimates of marginals P_{S∼ μ} {i ∈ S}, then the task of sampling from μ can be reduced to sampling from related distributions ν supported on size k subsets of a ground set of only n^{1-α}⋅ poly(k) elements. Here, 1/α ∈ [1, k] is the parameter of entropic independence for μ. Further, our algorithm only requires sparsified distributions ν that are obtained by applying a sparse (mostly 0) external field to μ, an operation that for many distributions μ of interest, retains algorithmic tractability of sampling from ν. This phenomenon, which we dub domain sparsification, allows us to pay a one-time cost of estimating the marginals of μ, and in return reduce the amortized cost needed to produce many samples from the distribution μ, as is often needed in upstream tasks such as counting and inference.
For a wide range of distributions where α = Ω(1), our result reduces the domain size, and as a corollary, the cost-per-sample, by a poly(n) factor. Examples include monomers in a monomer-dimer system, non-symmetric determinantal point processes, and partition-constrained Strongly Rayleigh measures. Our work significantly extends the reach of prior work of Anari and Dereziński who obtained domain sparsification for distributions with a log-concave generating polynomial (corresponding to α = 1). As a corollary of our new analysis techniques, we also obtain a less stringent requirement on the accuracy of marginal estimates even for the case of log-concave polynomials; roughly speaking, we show that constant-factor approximation is enough for domain sparsification, improving over O(1/k) relative error established in prior work.

Nima Anari, Michał Dereziński, Thuy-Duong Vuong, and Elizabeth Yang. Domain Sparsification of Discrete Distributions Using Entropic Independence. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 5:1-5:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{anari_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.5, author = {Anari, Nima and Derezi\'{n}ski, Micha{\l} and Vuong, Thuy-Duong and Yang, Elizabeth}, title = {{Domain Sparsification of Discrete Distributions Using Entropic Independence}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {5:1--5:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156013}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.5}, annote = {Keywords: Domain Sparsification, Markov Chains, Sampling, Entropic Independence} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

We study the problem of sampling a uniformly random directed rooted spanning tree, also known as an arborescence, from a possibly weighted directed graph. Classically, this problem has long been known to be polynomial-time solvable; the exact number of arborescences can be computed by a determinant [Tutte, 1948], and sampling can be reduced to counting [Jerrum et al., 1986; Jerrum and Sinclair, 1996]. However, the classic reduction from sampling to counting seems to be inherently sequential. This raises the question of designing efficient parallel algorithms for sampling. We show that sampling arborescences can be done in RNC.
For several well-studied combinatorial structures, counting can be reduced to the computation of a determinant, which is known to be in NC [Csanky, 1975]. These include arborescences, planar graph perfect matchings, Eulerian tours in digraphs, and determinantal point processes. However, not much is known about efficient parallel sampling of these structures. Our work is a step towards resolving this mystery.

Nima Anari, Nathan Hu, Amin Saberi, and Aaron Schild. Sampling Arborescences in Parallel. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 83:1-83:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{anari_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.83, author = {Anari, Nima and Hu, Nathan and Saberi, Amin and Schild, Aaron}, title = {{Sampling Arborescences in Parallel}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {83:1--83:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.83}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136225}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.83}, annote = {Keywords: parallel algorithms, arborescences, spanning trees, random sampling} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

Given a matrix A and k ≥ 0, we study the problem of finding the k × k submatrix of A with the maximum determinant in absolute value. This problem is motivated by the question of computing the determinant-based lower bound of cite{LSV86} on hereditary discrepancy, which was later shown to be an approximate upper bound as well [Matoušek, 2013]. The special case where k coincides with one of the dimensions of A has been extensively studied. Nikolov gave a 2^{O(k)}-approximation algorithm for this special case, matching known lower bounds; he also raised as an open problem the question of designing approximation algorithms for the general case.
We make progress towards answering this question by giving the first efficient approximation algorithm for general k× k subdeterminant maximization with an approximation ratio that depends only on k. Our algorithm finds a k^{O(k)}-approximate solution by performing a simple local search. Our main technical contribution, enabling the analysis of the approximation ratio, is an extension of Plücker relations for the Grassmannian, which may be of independent interest; Plücker relations are quadratic polynomial equations involving the set of k× k subdeterminants of a k× n matrix. We find an extension of these relations to k× k subdeterminants of general m× n matrices.

Nima Anari and Thuy-Duong Vuong. An Extension of Plücker Relations with Applications to Subdeterminant Maximization. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 56:1-56:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{anari_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.56, author = {Anari, Nima and Vuong, Thuy-Duong}, title = {{An Extension of Pl\"{u}cker Relations with Applications to Subdeterminant Maximization}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {56:1--56:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126596}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.56}, annote = {Keywords: Pl\"{u}cker relations, determinant maximization, local search, exchange property, discrete concavity, discrepancy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

Is matching in NC, i.e., is there a deterministic fast parallel algorithm for it? This has been an outstanding open question in TCS for over three decades, ever since the discovery of randomized NC matching algorithms [Karp et al., 1985; Mulmuley et al., 1987]. Over the last five years, the theoretical computer science community has launched a relentless attack on this question, leading to the discovery of several powerful ideas. We give what appears to be the culmination of this line of work: An NC algorithm for finding a minimum-weight perfect matching in a general graph with polynomially bounded edge weights, provided it is given an oracle for the decision problem. Consequently, for settling the main open problem, it suffices to obtain an NC algorithm for the decision problem. We believe this new fact has qualitatively changed the nature of this open problem.
All known efficient matching algorithms for general graphs follow one of two approaches: given by [Edmonds, 1965] and [Lovász, 1979]. Our oracle-based algorithm follows a new approach and uses many of ideas discovered in the last five years.
The difficulty of obtaining an NC perfect matching algorithm led researchers to study matching vis-a-vis clever relaxations of the class NC. In this vein, recently [Goldwasser and Grossman, 2015] gave a pseudo-deterministic RNC algorithm for finding a perfect matching in a bipartite graph, i.e., an RNC algorithm with the additional requirement that on the same graph, it should return the same (i.e., unique) perfect matching for almost all choices of random bits. A corollary of our reduction is an analogous algorithm for general graphs.

Nima Anari and Vijay V. Vazirani. Matching Is as Easy as the Decision Problem, in the NC Model. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 54:1-54:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{anari_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.54, author = {Anari, Nima and Vazirani, Vijay V.}, title = {{Matching Is as Easy as the Decision Problem, in the NC Model}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {54:1--54:25}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117399}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.54}, annote = {Keywords: Parallel Algorithm, Pseudo-Deterministic, Perfect Matching, Tutte Matrix} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

We design a polynomial time algorithm that for any weighted undirected graph G = (V, E, w) and sufficiently large \delta > 1, partitions V into subsets V(1),..., V(h) for some h>= 1, such that at most \delta^{-1} fraction of the weights are between clusters, i.e.
sum(i < j) |E(V(i), V(j)| < w(E)/\delta
and the effective resistance diameter of each of the induced subgraphs
G[V(i)] is at most \delta^3 times the inverse of the average weighted degree, i.e.
max{ Reff(u, v) : u, v \in V(i)} < \delta^3 · |V|/w(E)
for all i = 1,..., h. In particular, it is possible to remove one
percent of weight of edges of any given graph such that each of the
resulting connected components has effective resistance diameter at
most the inverse of the average weighted degree. Our proof is based
on a new connection between effective resistance and low conductance
sets. We show that if the effective resistance between two vertices u and v is large, then there must be a low conductance cut separating u from v. This implies that very mildly expanding graphs have constant effective resistance diameter. We believe that this connection could be of independent interest in algorithm design.

Vedat Levi Alev, Nima Anari, Lap Chi Lau, and Shayan Oveis Gharan. Graph Clustering using Effective Resistance. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 41:1-41:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{alev_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.41, author = {Alev, Vedat Levi and Anari, Nima and Lau, Lap Chi and Oveis Gharan, Shayan}, title = {{Graph Clustering using Effective Resistance}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {41:1--41:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83696}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.41}, annote = {Keywords: Electrical Flows, Effective Resistance, Conductance, Graph Partitioning} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 67, 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)

We study the problem of allocating m items to n agents subject to maximizing the Nash social welfare (NSW) objective. We write a novel convex programming relaxation for this problem, and we show that a simple randomized rounding algorithm gives a 1/e approximation factor of the objective, breaking the 1/2e^(1/e) approximation factor of Cole and Gkatzelis.
Our main technical contribution is an extension of Gurvits's lower bound on the coefficient of the square-free monomial of a degree m-homogeneous stable polynomial on m variables to all homogeneous polynomials. We use this extension to analyze the expected welfare of the allocation returned by our randomized rounding algorithm.

Nima Anari, Shayan Oveis Gharan, Amin Saberi, and Mohit Singh. Nash Social Welfare, Matrix Permanent, and Stable Polynomials. In 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 67, pp. 36:1-36:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{anari_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.36, author = {Anari, Nima and Oveis Gharan, Shayan and Saberi, Amin and Singh, Mohit}, title = {{Nash Social Welfare, Matrix Permanent, and Stable Polynomials}}, booktitle = {8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)}, pages = {36:1--36:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-029-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, editor = {Papadimitriou, Christos H.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-81489}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.36}, annote = {Keywords: Nash Welfare, Permanent, Matching, Stable Polynomial, Randomized Algorithm, Saddle Point} }

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