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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We study the query version of the approximate heavy hitter and quantile problems. In the former problem, the input is a parameter ε and a set P of n points in ℝ^d where each point is assigned a color from a set C, and the goal is to build a structure such that given any geometric range γ, we can efficiently find a list of approximate heavy hitters in γ∩P, i.e., colors that appear at least ε |γ∩P| times in γ∩P, as well as their frequencies with an additive error of ε |γ∩P|. In the latter problem, each point is assigned a weight from a totally ordered universe and the query must output a sequence S of 1+1/ε weights such that the i-th weight in S has approximate rank iε|γ∩P|, meaning, rank iε|γ∩P| up to an additive error of ε|γ∩P|. Previously, optimal results were only known in 1D [Wei and Yi, 2011] but a few sub-optimal methods were available in higher dimensions [Peyman Afshani and Zhewei Wei, 2017; Pankaj K. Agarwal et al., 2012].
We study the problems for two important classes of geometric ranges: 3D halfspace and 3D dominance queries. It is known that many other important queries can be reduced to these two, e.g., 1D interval stabbing or interval containment, 2D three-sided queries, 2D circular as well as 2D k-nearest neighbors queries. We consider the real RAM model of computation where integer registers of size w bits, w = Θ(log n), are also available. For dominance queries, we show optimal solutions for both heavy hitter and quantile problems: using linear space, we can answer both queries in time O(log n + 1/ε). Note that as the output size is 1/ε, after investing the initial O(log n) searching time, our structure takes on average O(1) time to find a heavy hitter or a quantile! For more general halfspace heavy hitter queries, the same optimal query time can be achieved by increasing the space by an extra log_w(1/ε) (resp. log log_w(1/ε)) factor in 3D (resp. 2D). By spending extra log^O(1)(1/ε) factors in both time and space, we can also support quantile queries.
We remark that it is hopeless to achieve a similar query bound for dimensions 4 or higher unless significant advances are made in the data structure side of theory of geometric approximations.

Peyman Afshani, Pingan Cheng, Aniket Basu Roy, and Zhewei Wei. On Range Summary Queries. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 7:1-7:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{afshani_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.7, author = {Afshani, Peyman and Cheng, Pingan and Basu Roy, Aniket and Wei, Zhewei}, title = {{On Range Summary Queries}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {7:1--7:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180590}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.7}, annote = {Keywords: Computational Geometry, Range Searching, Random Sampling, Geometric Approximation, Data Structures and Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

In this paper, we design the first polynomial time approximation schemes for the Set Cover and Dominating Set problems when the underlying sets are non-piercing regions (which include pseudodisks). We show that the local
search algorithm that yields PTASs when the regions are disks [Aschner/Katz/Morgenstern/Yuditsky, WALCOM 2013; Gibson/Pirwani, 2005; Mustafa/Raman/Ray, 2015] can be extended to work for non-piercing regions. While such an extension is intuitive and natural, attempts to settle this question have failed even for pseudodisks. The techniques used for analysis when the regions are disks rely heavily on the underlying geometry, and do not extend to topologically defined settings such as pseudodisks. In order to prove our results, we introduce novel techniques that we believe will find applications in other problems.
We then consider the Capacitated Region Packing problem. Here, the input consists of a set of points with capacities, and a set of regions. The objective is to pick a maximum cardinality subset of regions so that no point is covered by more regions than its capacity. We show that this problem admits a PTAS when the regions are k-admissible regions (pseudodisks are 2-admissible), and the capacities are bounded. Our result settles a conjecture of Har-Peled (see Conclusion of [Har-Peled, SoCG 2014]) in the affirmative. The conjecture was for a weaker version of the problem, namely when the regions are pseudodisks, the capacities are uniform, and the point set consists of all points in the plane.
Finally, we consider the Capacitated Point Packing problem. In this setting, the regions have capacities, and our
objective is to find a maximum cardinality subset of points such that no region has more points than its capacity. We show that this problem admits a PTAS when the capacity is unity, extending one of the results of Ene et al. [Ene/Har-Peled/Raichel, SoCG 2012].

Sathish Govindarajan, Rajiv Raman, Saurabh Ray, and Aniket Basu Roy. Packing and Covering with Non-Piercing Regions. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 47:1-47:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{govindarajan_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.47, author = {Govindarajan, Sathish and Raman, Rajiv and Ray, Saurabh and Basu Roy, Aniket}, title = {{Packing and Covering with Non-Piercing Regions}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {47:1--47:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63591}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.47}, annote = {Keywords: Local Search, Set Cover, Dominating Set, Capacitated Packing, Approximation algorithms} }

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