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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

A code 𝒞 ⊆ {0,1}^n̅ is (s,L) erasure list-decodable if for every word w, after erasing any s symbols of w, the remaining n̅-s symbols have at most L possible completions into a codeword of 𝒞. Non-explicitly, there exist binary ((1-τ)n̅,L) erasure list-decodable codes with rate approaching τ and tiny list-size L = O(log 1/(τ)). Achieving either of these parameters explicitly is a natural open problem (see, e.g., [Guruswami and Indyk, 2002; Guruswami, 2003; Guruswami, 2004]). While partial progress on the problem has been achieved, no prior nontrivial explicit construction achieved rate better than Ω(τ²) or list-size smaller than Ω(1/τ). Furthermore, Guruswami showed no linear code can have list-size smaller than Ω(1/τ) [Guruswami, 2003]. We construct an explicit binary ((1-τ)n̅,L) erasure list-decodable code having rate τ^(1+γ) (for any constant γ > 0 and small τ) and list-size poly(log 1/τ), answering simultaneously both questions, and exhibiting an explicit non-linear code that provably beats the best possible linear code.
The binary erasure list-decoding problem is equivalent to the construction of explicit, low-error, strong dispersers outputting one bit with minimal entropy-loss and seed-length. For error ε, no prior explicit construction achieved seed-length better than 2log(1/ε) or entropy-loss smaller than 2log(1/ε), which are the best possible parameters for extractors. We explicitly construct an ε-error one-bit strong disperser with near-optimal seed-length (1+γ)log(1/ε) and entropy-loss O(log log1/ε).
The main ingredient in our construction is a new (and almost-optimal) unbalanced two-source extractor. The extractor extracts one bit with constant error from two independent sources, where one source has length n and tiny min-entropy O(log log n) and the other source has length O(log n) and arbitrarily small constant min-entropy rate. When instantiated as a balanced two-source extractor, it improves upon Raz’s extractor [Raz, 2005] in the constant error regime. The construction incorporates recent components and ideas from extractor theory with a delicate and novel analysis needed in order to solve dependency and error issues that prevented previous papers (such as [Li, 2015; Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman, 2019; Cohen, 2016]) from achieving the above results.

Avraham Ben-Aroya, Dean Doron, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Near-Optimal Erasure List-Decodable Codes. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 1:1-1:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{benaroya_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.1, author = {Ben-Aroya, Avraham and Doron, Dean and Ta-Shma, Amnon}, title = {{Near-Optimal Erasure List-Decodable Codes}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {1:1--1:27}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125531}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.1}, annote = {Keywords: Dispersers, Erasure codes, List decoding, Ramsey graphs, Two-source extractors} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

In their seminal work, Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman (STOC'16) constructed a two-source extractor with error epsilon for n-bit sources having min-entropy {polylog}(n/epsilon). Unfortunately, the construction’s running-time is {poly}(n/epsilon), which means that with polynomial-time constructions, only polynomially-small errors are possible. Our main result is a {poly}(n,log(1/epsilon))-time computable two-source condenser. For any k >= {polylog}(n/epsilon), our condenser transforms two independent (n,k)-sources to a distribution over m = k-O(log(1/epsilon)) bits that is epsilon-close to having min-entropy m - o(log(1/epsilon)). Hence, achieving entropy gap of o(log(1/epsilon)).
The bottleneck for obtaining low error in recent constructions of two-source extractors lies in the use of resilient functions. Informally, this is a function that receives input bits from r players with the property that the function’s output has small bias even if a bounded number of corrupted players feed adversarial inputs after seeing the inputs of the other players. The drawback of using resilient functions is that the error cannot be smaller than ln r/r. This, in return, forces the running time of the construction to be polynomial in 1/epsilon.
A key component in our construction is a variant of resilient functions which we call entropy-resilient functions. This variant can be seen as playing the above game for several rounds, each round outputting one bit. The goal of the corrupted players is to reduce, with as high probability as they can, the min-entropy accumulated throughout the rounds. We show that while the bias decreases only polynomially with the number of players in a one-round game, their success probability decreases exponentially in the entropy gap they are attempting to incur in a repeated game.

Avraham Ben-Aroya, Gil Cohen, Dean Doron, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Two-Source Condensers with Low Error and Small Entropy Gap via Entropy-Resilient Functions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 43:1-43:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{benaroya_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43, author = {Ben-Aroya, Avraham and Cohen, Gil and Doron, Dean and Ta-Shma, Amnon}, title = {{Two-Source Condensers with Low Error and Small Entropy Gap via Entropy-Resilient Functions}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {43:1--43:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112587}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43}, annote = {Keywords: Condensers, Extractors, Resilient functions, Explicit constructions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 102, 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)

Our main contribution in this paper is a new reduction from explicit two-source extractors for polynomially-small entropy rate and negligible error to explicit t-non-malleable extractors with seed-length that has a good dependence on t. Our reduction is based on the Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman framework (STOC 2016), and surprisingly we dispense with the use of resilient functions which appeared to be a major ingredient there and in follow-up works. The use of resilient functions posed a fundamental barrier towards achieving negligible error, and our new reduction circumvents this bottleneck.
The parameters we require from t-non-malleable extractors for our reduction to work hold in a non-explicit construction, but currently it is not known how to explicitly construct such extractors. As a result we do not give an unconditional construction of an explicit low-error two-source extractor. Nonetheless, we believe our work gives a viable approach for solving the important problem of low-error two-source extractors. Furthermore, our work highlights an existing barrier in constructing low-error two-source extractors, and draws attention to the dependence of the parameter t in the seed-length of the non-malleable extractor. We hope this work would lead to further developments in explicit constructions of both non-malleable and two-source extractors.

Avraham Ben-Aroya, Eshan Chattopadhyay, Dean Doron, Xin Li, and Amnon Ta-Shma. A New Approach for Constructing Low-Error, Two-Source Extractors. In 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 102, pp. 3:1-3:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{benaroya_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2018.3, author = {Ben-Aroya, Avraham and Chattopadhyay, Eshan and Doron, Dean and Li, Xin and Ta-Shma, Amnon}, title = {{A New Approach for Constructing Low-Error, Two-Source Extractors}}, booktitle = {33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)}, pages = {3:1--3:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-069-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {102}, editor = {Servedio, Rocco A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88877}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.3}, annote = {Keywords: Two-Source Extractors, Non-Malleable Extractors, Pseudorandomness, Explicit Constructions} }

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