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Documents authored by Bonenfant, Armelle


Document
Early WCET Prediction Using Machine Learning

Authors: Armelle Bonenfant, Denis Claraz, Marianne de Michiel, and Pascal Sotin

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 57, 17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017)


Abstract
For delivering a precise Worst Case Execution Time (WCET), the WCET static analysers need the executable program and the target architecture. However, a prediction (even coarse) of the future WCET would be helpful at design stages where only the source code is available. We investigate the possibility of creating predictors of the WCET based on the C source code using machine-learning (work in progress). If successful, our proposal would offer to the designer precious information on the WCET of a piece of code at the early stages of the development process.

Cite as

Armelle Bonenfant, Denis Claraz, Marianne de Michiel, and Pascal Sotin. Early WCET Prediction Using Machine Learning. In 17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 57, pp. 5:1-5:9, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{bonenfant_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2017.5,
  author =	{Bonenfant, Armelle and Claraz, Denis and de Michiel, Marianne and Sotin, Pascal},
  title =	{{Early WCET Prediction Using Machine Learning}},
  booktitle =	{17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:9},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-057-6},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{57},
  editor =	{Reineke, Jan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2017.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73073},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2017.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Early WCET, Machine Learning, Static Analysis, C Language}
}
Document
The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation

Authors: Claire Maiza, Pascal Raymond, Catherine Parent-Vigouroux, Armelle Bonenfant, Fabienne Carrier, Hugues Cassé, Philippe Cuenot, Denis Claraz, Nicolas Halbwachs, Erwan Jahier, Hanbing Li, Marianne de Michiel, Vincent Mussot, Isabelle Puaut, Christine Rochange, Erven Rohou, Jordy Ruiz, Pascal Sotin, and Wei-Tsun Sun

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 57, 17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017)


Abstract
Critical embedded systems are generally composed of repetitive tasks that must meet hard timing constraints, such as termination deadlines. Providing an upper bound of the worst-case execution time (WCET) of such tasks at design time is necessary to guarantee the correctness of the system. In static WCET analysis, a main source of over-approximation comes from the complexity of the modern hardware platforms: their timing behavior tends to become more unpredictable because of features like caches, pipeline, branch prediction, etc. Another source of over-approximation comes from the software itself: WCET analysis may consider potential worst-cases executions that are actually infeasible, because of the semantics of the program or because they correspond to unrealistic inputs. The W-SEPT project, for "WCET, Semantics, Precision and Traceability", has been carried out to study and exploit the influence of program semantics on the WCET estimation. This paper presents the results of this project : a semantic-aware WCET estimation workflow for high-level designed systems.

Cite as

Claire Maiza, Pascal Raymond, Catherine Parent-Vigouroux, Armelle Bonenfant, Fabienne Carrier, Hugues Cassé, Philippe Cuenot, Denis Claraz, Nicolas Halbwachs, Erwan Jahier, Hanbing Li, Marianne de Michiel, Vincent Mussot, Isabelle Puaut, Christine Rochange, Erven Rohou, Jordy Ruiz, Pascal Sotin, and Wei-Tsun Sun. The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation. In 17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 57, pp. 9:1-9:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{maiza_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2017.9,
  author =	{Maiza, Claire and Raymond, Pascal and Parent-Vigouroux, Catherine and Bonenfant, Armelle and Carrier, Fabienne and Cass\'{e}, Hugues and Cuenot, Philippe and Claraz, Denis and Halbwachs, Nicolas and Jahier, Erwan and Li, Hanbing and de Michiel, Marianne and Mussot, Vincent and Puaut, Isabelle and Rochange, Christine and Rohou, Erven and Ruiz, Jordy and Sotin, Pascal and Sun, Wei-Tsun},
  title =	{{The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation}},
  booktitle =	{17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:13},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-057-6},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{57},
  editor =	{Reineke, Jan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2017.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73097},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2017.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Worst-case execution time analysis, Static analysis, Program analysis}
}
Document
Identifying Relevant Parameters to Improve WCET Analysis

Authors: Jakob Zwirchmayr, Pascal Sotin, Armelle Bonenfant, Denis Claraz, and Philippe Cuenot

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 39, 14th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (2014)


Abstract
Highly-configurable systems usually depend on a large number of parameters imposed by both hardware and software configuration. Due to the pessimistic assumptions of WCET analysis, if left unspecified, they deteriorate the quality of WCET analysis. In such a case, supplying the WCET analyzer with additional information about parameters (a scenario), e.g. possible variable ranges or values, allows reducing WCET over-estimation, either by improving the estimate, or by validating the initial estimate for a specific configuration or mode of execution. Nevertheless, exhaustively specifying constraints on all parameters is usually infeasible and identifying relevant ones (i.e. those impacting the WCET) is difficult. To address this issue, we propose the branching statement analysis, which uses a source-based heuristic to compute branch weights and that aims at listing unbalanced conditionals that correspond to system parameters. The goal is to help system-experts identify and formulate concise scenarios about modes or configurations that have a positive impact on the quality of the WCET analysis.

Cite as

Jakob Zwirchmayr, Pascal Sotin, Armelle Bonenfant, Denis Claraz, and Philippe Cuenot. Identifying Relevant Parameters to Improve WCET Analysis. In 14th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 39, pp. 93-102, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)


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@InProceedings{zwirchmayr_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2014.93,
  author =	{Zwirchmayr, Jakob and Sotin, Pascal and Bonenfant, Armelle and Claraz, Denis and Cuenot, Philippe},
  title =	{{Identifying Relevant Parameters to Improve WCET Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis},
  pages =	{93--102},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-69-9},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2014},
  volume =	{39},
  editor =	{Falk, Heiko},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2014.93},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-46085},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2014.93},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET Accuracy, Modes and Configuration, Flow Facts, Scenario Specification}
}
Document
WCET Analysis of a Parallel 3D Multigrid Solver Executed on the MERASA Multi-Core

Authors: Christine Rochange, Armelle Bonenfant, Pascal Sainrat, Mike Gerdes, Julian Wolf, Theo Ungerer, Zlatko Petrov, and Frantisek Mikulu

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 15, 10th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2010)


Abstract
To meet performance requirements as well as constraints on cost and power consumption, future embedded systems will be designed with multi-core processors. However, the question of timing analysability is raised with these architectures. In the MERASA project, a WCET-aware multi-core processor has been designed with the appropriate system software. They both guarantee that the WCET of tasks running on different cores can be safely analyzed since their possible interactions can be bounded. Nevertheless, computing the WCET of a parallel application is still not straightforward and a high-level preliminary analysis of the communication and synchronization patterns must be performed. In this paper, we report on our experience in evaluating the WCET of a parallel 3D multigrid solver code and we propose lines for further research on this topic.

Cite as

Christine Rochange, Armelle Bonenfant, Pascal Sainrat, Mike Gerdes, Julian Wolf, Theo Ungerer, Zlatko Petrov, and Frantisek Mikulu. WCET Analysis of a Parallel 3D Multigrid Solver Executed on the MERASA Multi-Core. In 10th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2010). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 15, pp. 90-100, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)


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@InProceedings{rochange_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2010.90,
  author =	{Rochange, Christine and Bonenfant, Armelle and Sainrat, Pascal and Gerdes, Mike and Wolf, Julian and Ungerer, Theo and Petrov, Zlatko and Mikulu, Frantisek},
  title =	{{WCET Analysis of a Parallel 3D Multigrid Solver Executed on the MERASA Multi-Core}},
  booktitle =	{10th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2010)},
  pages =	{90--100},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-21-7},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2010},
  volume =	{15},
  editor =	{Lisper, Bj\"{o}rn},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2010.90},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-28298},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2010.90},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET analysis, multicore, timing predictability}
}
Document
WCET 2008 -- Report from the Tool Challenge 2008 -- 8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis

Authors: Niklas Holsti, Jan Gustafsson, Guillem Bernat, Clément Ballabriga, Armelle Bonenfant, Roman Bourgade, Hugues Cassé, Daniel Cordes, Albrecht Kadlec, Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Paul Lokuciejewski, Nicholas Merriam, Marianne de Michiel, Adrian Prantl, Bernhard Rieder, Christine Rochange, Pascal Sainrat, and Markus Schordan

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 8, 8th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'08) (2008)


Abstract
Following the successful WCET Tool Challenge in 2006, the second event in this series was organized in 2008, again with support from the ARTIST2 Network of Excellence. The WCET Tool Challenge 2008 (WCC'08) provides benchmark programs and poses a number of "analysis problems" about the dynamic, run-time properties of these programs. The participants are challenged to solve these problems with their program analysis tools. Two kinds of problems are defined: WCET problems, which ask for bounds on the execution time of chosen parts (subprograms) of the benchmarks, under given constraints on input data; and flow-analysis problems, which ask for bounds on the number of times certain parts of the benchmark can be executed, again under some constraints. We describe the organization of WCC'08, the benchmark programs, the participating tools, and the general results, successes, and failures. Most participants found WCC'08 to be a useful test of their tools. Unlike the 2006 Challenge, the WCC'08 participants include several tools for the same target (ARM7, LPC2138), and tools that combine measurements and static analysis, as well as pure static-analysis tools.

Cite as

Niklas Holsti, Jan Gustafsson, Guillem Bernat, Clément Ballabriga, Armelle Bonenfant, Roman Bourgade, Hugues Cassé, Daniel Cordes, Albrecht Kadlec, Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Paul Lokuciejewski, Nicholas Merriam, Marianne de Michiel, Adrian Prantl, Bernhard Rieder, Christine Rochange, Pascal Sainrat, and Markus Schordan. WCET 2008 -- Report from the Tool Challenge 2008 -- 8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis. In 8th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'08). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 8, pp. 1-23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2008)


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@InProceedings{holsti_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2008.1663,
  author =	{Holsti, Niklas and Gustafsson, Jan and Bernat, Guillem and Ballabriga, Cl\'{e}ment and Bonenfant, Armelle and Bourgade, Roman and Cass\'{e}, Hugues and Cordes, Daniel and Kadlec, Albrecht and Kirner, Raimund and Knoop, Jens and Lokuciejewski, Paul and Merriam, Nicholas and de Michiel, Marianne and Prantl, Adrian and Rieder, Bernhard and Rochange, Christine and Sainrat, Pascal and Schordan, Markus},
  title =	{{WCET 2008 -- Report from the Tool Challenge 2008 -- 8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{8th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'08)},
  pages =	{1--23},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-10-1},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2008},
  volume =	{8},
  editor =	{Kirner, Raimund},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2008.1663},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-16637},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2008.1663},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET analysis, benchmark}
}
Document
Automatic Amortised Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis

Authors: Christoph A. Herrmann, Armelle Bonenfant, Kevin Hammond, Steffen Jost, Hans-Wolfgang Loidl, and Robert Pointon

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 6, 7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07) (2007)


Abstract
Our research focuses on formally bounded WCET analysis, where we aim to provide absolute guarantees on execution time bounds. In this paper, we describe how amortisation can be used to improve the quality of the results that are obtained from a fully-automatic and formally guaranteed WCET analysis, by delivering analysis results that are parameterised on specific input patterns and which take account of relations between these patterns. We have implemented our approach to give a tool that is capable of predicting execution costs for a typical embedded system development platform, a Renesas board with a Renesas M32C/85U processor. We show that not only is the amortised approach applicable in theory, but that it can be applied automatically to yield good WCET results.

Cite as

Christoph A. Herrmann, Armelle Bonenfant, Kevin Hammond, Steffen Jost, Hans-Wolfgang Loidl, and Robert Pointon. Automatic Amortised Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis. In 7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 6, pp. 1-6, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{herrmann_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2007.1186,
  author =	{Herrmann, Christoph A. and Bonenfant, Armelle and Hammond, Kevin and Jost, Steffen and Loidl, Hans-Wolfgang and Pointon, Robert},
  title =	{{Automatic Amortised Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07)},
  pages =	{1--6},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-05-7},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{6},
  editor =	{Rochange, Christine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2007.1186},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-11868},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2007.1186},
  annote =	{Keywords: Amortisation, functional programming, performance measurement, static analysis, type and effect systems, worst-case execution time}
}
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