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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Effective resistances are ubiquitous in graph algorithms and network analysis. For an undirected graph G, its effective resistance R_G(s,t) between two vertices s and t is defined as the equivalent resistance between s and t if G is thought of as an electrical network with unit resistance on each edge. If we use L_G to denote the Laplacian matrix of G and L_G^† to denote its pseudo-inverse, we have R_G(s,t) = (𝟏_s-𝟏_t)^⊤ L^† (𝟏_s-𝟏_t) such that classical Laplacian solvers [Daniel A. Spielman and Shang{-}Hua Teng, 2014] provide almost-linear time algorithms to approximate R_G(s,t).
In this work, we study sublinear time algorithms to approximate the effective resistance of an adjacent pair s and t. We consider the classical adjacency list model [Ron, 2019] for local algorithms. While recent works [Andoni et al., 2018; Peng et al., 2021; Li and Sachdeva, 2023] have provided sublinear time algorithms for expander graphs, we prove several lower bounds for general graphs of n vertices and m edges:
1) It needs Ω(n) queries to obtain 1.01-approximations of the effective resistance of an adjacent pair s and t, even for graphs of degree at most 3 except s and t.
2) For graphs of degree at most d and any parameter 𝓁, it needs Ω(m/𝓁) queries to obtain c ⋅ min{d,𝓁}-approximations where c > 0 is a universal constant. Moreover, we supplement the first lower bound by providing a sublinear time (1+ε)-approximation algorithm for graphs of degree 2 except the pair s and t.
One of our technical ingredients is to bound the expansion of a graph in terms of the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of its Laplacian matrix after removing edges. We discover a new lower bound on the eigenvalues of perturbed graphs (resp. perturbed matrices) by incorporating the effective resistance of the removed edge (resp. the leverage scores of the removed rows), which may be of independent interest.

Dongrun Cai, Xue Chen, and Pan Peng. Effective Resistances in Non-Expander Graphs. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 29:1-29:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{cai_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.29, author = {Cai, Dongrun and Chen, Xue and Peng, Pan}, title = {{Effective Resistances in Non-Expander Graphs}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {29:1--29:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186823}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.29}, annote = {Keywords: Sublinear Time Algorithm, Effective Resistance, Leverage Scores, Matrix Perturbation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We study the classical expander codes, introduced by Sipser and Spielman [M. Sipser and D. A. Spielman, 1996]. Given any constants 0 < α, ε < 1/2, and an arbitrary bipartite graph with N vertices on the left, M < N vertices on the right, and left degree D such that any left subset S of size at most α N has at least (1-ε)|S|D neighbors, we show that the corresponding linear code given by parity checks on the right has distance at least roughly {α N}/{2 ε}. This is strictly better than the best known previous result of 2(1-ε) α N [Madhu Sudan, 2000; Viderman, 2013] whenever ε < 1/2, and improves the previous result significantly when ε is small. Furthermore, we show that this distance is tight in general, thus providing a complete characterization of the distance of general expander codes.
Next, we provide several efficient decoding algorithms, which vastly improve previous results in terms of the fraction of errors corrected, whenever ε < 1/4. Finally, we also give a bound on the list-decoding radius of general expander codes, which beats the classical Johnson bound in certain situations (e.g., when the graph is almost regular and the code has a high rate).
Our techniques exploit novel combinatorial properties of bipartite expander graphs. In particular, we establish a new size-expansion tradeoff, which may be of independent interests.

Xue Chen, Kuan Cheng, Xin Li, and Minghui Ouyang. Improved Decoding of Expander Codes. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 43:1-43:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43, author = {Chen, Xue and Cheng, Kuan and Li, Xin and Ouyang, Minghui}, title = {{Improved Decoding of Expander Codes}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {43:1--43:3}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156394}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43}, annote = {Keywords: Expander Code, Decoding} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We consider the problem of locating a signal whose frequencies are "off grid" and clustered in a narrow band. Given noisy sample access to a function g(t) with Fourier spectrum in a narrow range [f_0 - Delta, f_0 + Delta], how accurately is it possible to identify f_0? We present generic conditions on g that allow for efficient, accurate estimates of the frequency. We then show bounds on these conditions for k-Fourier-sparse signals that imply recovery of f_0 to within Delta + O~(k^3) from samples on [-1, 1]. This improves upon the best previous bound of O(Delta + O~(k^5))^{1.5}. We also show that no algorithm can do better than Delta + O~(k^2).
In the process we provide a new O~(k^3) bound on the ratio between the maximum and average value of continuous k-Fourier-sparse signals, which has independent application.

Xue Chen and Eric Price. Estimating the Frequency of a Clustered Signal. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 36:1-36:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.36, author = {Chen, Xue and Price, Eric}, title = {{Estimating the Frequency of a Clustered Signal}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {36:1--36:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106128}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.36}, annote = {Keywords: sublinear algorithms, Fourier transform} }

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