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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

It is well known [L. Lovász, 1967] that up to isomorphism a graph G is determined by the homomorphism counts hom(F, G), i.e., by the number of homomorphisms from F to G where F ranges over all graphs. Moreover, it suffices that F ranges over the graphs with at most as many vertices as G. Thus, in principle, we can answer any query concerning G with only accessing the hom(⋅, G)’s instead of G itself. In this paper, we deal with queries for which there is a hom algorithm, i.e., there are finitely many graphs F₁, …, F_k such that for any graph G whether it is a Yes-instance of the query is already determined by the vector hom^⟶_{F₁, …, F_k}(G): = (hom(F₁, G), …, hom(F_k, G)).
We observe that planarity of graphs and 3-colorability of graphs, properties expressible in monadic second-order logic, have no hom algorithm. On the other hand, queries expressible as a Boolean combination of universal sentences in first-order logic FO have a hom algorithm. Even though it is not easy to find FO definable queries without a hom algorithm, we succeed to show this for the non-existence of an isolated vertex, a property expressible by the FO sentence ∀ x∃ y Exy, somehow the "simplest" graph property not definable by a Boolean combination of universal sentences. These results provide a characterization of the prefix classes of first-order logic with the property that each query definable by a sentence of the prefix class has a hom algorithm.
For adaptive hom algorithms, i.e., algorithms that might access a hom(F_{i+1}, G) with F_{i+1} depending on hom(F_j, G) for 1 ≤ j ≤ i we show that three homomorphism counts hom(⋅, G) are sufficient and in general necessary to determine the (isomorphism type of) G. In particular, by three adaptive queries we can answer any question on G. Moreover, adaptively accessing two hom(⋅, G)’s is already enough to detect an isolated vertex.
In 1993 Chaudhuri and Vardi [S. Chaudhuri and M. Y. Vardi, 1993] showed the analogue of the Lovász Isomorphism Theorem for the right homomorphism vector of a graph G, i.e, the vector of values hom(G,F) where F ranges over all graphs characterizes the isomorphism type of G. We study to what extent our results carry over to the right homomorphism vector.

Yijia Chen, Jörg Flum, Mingjun Liu, and Zhiyang Xun. On Algorithms Based on Finitely Many Homomorphism Counts. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 32:1-32:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.32, author = {Chen, Yijia and Flum, J\"{o}rg and Liu, Mingjun and Xun, Zhiyang}, title = {{On Algorithms Based on Finitely Many Homomorphism Counts}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {32:1--32:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168301}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.32}, annote = {Keywords: homomorphism numbers, hom algorithms, adaptive hom algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 152, 28th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2020)

Shrub-depth is a graph invariant often considered as an extension of tree-depth to dense graphs. We show that the model-checking problem of monadic second-order logic on a class of graphs of bounded shrub-depth can be decided by AC^0-circuits after a precomputation on the formula. This generalizes a similar result on graphs of bounded tree-depth [Y. Chen and J. Flum, 2018]. At the core of our proof is the definability in first-order logic of tree-models for graphs of bounded shrub-depth.

Yijia Chen and Jörg Flum. FO-Definability of Shrub-Depth. In 28th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 152, pp. 15:1-15:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.CSL.2020.15, author = {Chen, Yijia and Flum, J\"{o}rg}, title = {{FO-Definability of Shrub-Depth}}, booktitle = {28th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2020)}, pages = {15:1--15:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-132-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {152}, editor = {Fern\'{a}ndez, Maribel and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CSL.2020.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-116587}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CSL.2020.15}, annote = {Keywords: shrub-depth, model-checking, monadic second-order logic} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

For every graph class {F}, let HomInd({F}) be the problem of deciding whether two given graphs are homomorphism-indistinguishable over {F}, i.e., for every graph F in {F}, the number hom(F, G) of homomorphisms from F to G equals the corresponding number hom(F, H) for H. For several natural graph classes (such as paths, trees, bounded treewidth graphs), homomorphism-indistinguishability over the class has an efficient structural characterization, resulting in polynomial time solvability [H. Dell et al., 2018].
In particular, it is known that two non-isomorphic graphs are homomorphism-indistinguishable over the class {T}_k of graphs of treewidth k if and only if they are not distinguished by k-dimensional Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm, a central heuristic for isomorphism testing: this characterization implies a polynomial time algorithm for HomInd({T}_k), for every fixed k in N. In this paper, we show that there is a polynomial-time-decidable class {F} of undirected graphs of bounded treewidth such that HomInd({F}) is undecidable.
Our second hardness result concerns the class {K} of complete graphs. We show that HomInd({K}) is co-NP-hard, and in fact, we show completeness for the class C_=P (under P-time Turing reductions). On the algorithmic side, we show that HomInd({P}) can be solved in polynomial time for the class {P} of directed paths. We end with a brief study of two variants of the HomInd({F}) problem: (a) the problem of lexographic-comparison of homomorphism numbers of two graphs, and (b) the problem of computing certain distance-measures (defined via homomorphism numbers) between two graphs.

Jan Böker, Yijia Chen, Martin Grohe, and Gaurav Rattan. The Complexity of Homomorphism Indistinguishability. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 54:1-54:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{boker_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.54, author = {B\"{o}ker, Jan and Chen, Yijia and Grohe, Martin and Rattan, Gaurav}, title = {{The Complexity of Homomorphism Indistinguishability}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {54:1--54:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109980}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.54}, annote = {Keywords: graph homomorphism numbers, counting complexity, treewidth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 82, 26th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2017)

For every natural number q let FO_q denote the class of sentences of
first-order logic FO of quantifier rank at most q. If a graph property can be defined in FO_q, then it can be decided in time O(n^q). Thus, minimizing q has favorable algorithmic consequences. Many graph properties amount to the existence of a certain set of vertices of size k. Usually this can only be expressed by a sentence of quantifier rank at least k. We use the color coding method to demonstrate that some (hyper)graph problems can be defined in FO_q where q is independent of k. This property of a graph problem is equivalent to the question of whether the corresponding parameterized problem is in the class para-AC^0.
It is crucial for our results that the FO-sentences have access to built-in addition and multiplication (and constants for an initial segment of natural numbers whose length depends only on k). It is known that then FO corresponds to the circuit complexity class uniform AC^0. We explore the connection between the quantifier rank of FO-sentences and the depth of AC^0-circuits, and prove that FO_q is strictly contained in FO_{q+1} for structures with built-in addition and multiplication.

Yijia Chen, Jörg Flum, and Xuangui Huang. Slicewise Definability in First-Order Logic with Bounded Quantifier Rank. In 26th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 82, pp. 19:1-19:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.CSL.2017.19, author = {Chen, Yijia and Flum, J\"{o}rg and Huang, Xuangui}, title = {{Slicewise Definability in First-Order Logic with Bounded Quantifier Rank}}, booktitle = {26th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2017)}, pages = {19:1--19:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-045-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {82}, editor = {Goranko, Valentin and Dam, Mads}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CSL.2017.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-76742}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CSL.2017.19}, annote = {Keywords: first-order logic, quantifier rank, parameterized AC^0, circuit depth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 58, 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)

We demonstrate some lower bounds for parameterized problems via parameterized classes corresponding to the classical AC^0. Among others, we derive such a lower bound for all fpt-approximations of the parameterized clique problem and for a parameterized halting problem, which recently turned out to link problems of computational complexity, descriptive complexity, and proof theory. To show the first lower bound, we prove a strong AC^0 version of the planted clique conjecture: AC^0-circuits asymptotically almost surely can not distinguish between a random graph and this graph with a randomly planted clique of any size <= n^xi (where 0 <= xi < 1).

Yijia Chen and Jörg Flum. Some Lower Bounds in Parameterized AC^0. In 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 58, pp. 27:1-27:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.27, author = {Chen, Yijia and Flum, J\"{o}rg}, title = {{Some Lower Bounds in Parameterized AC^0}}, booktitle = {41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)}, pages = {27:1--27:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-016-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {58}, editor = {Faliszewski, Piotr and Muscholl, Anca and Niedermeier, Rolf}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-64423}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.27}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized AC^0, lower bound, clique, halting problem} }