Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

The so-called welded tree problem provides an example of a black-box problem that can be solved exponentially faster by a quantum walk than by any classical algorithm [Andrew M. Childs et al., 2003]. Given the name of a special entrance vertex, a quantum walk can find another distinguished exit vertex using polynomially many queries, though without finding any particular path from entrance to exit. It has been an open problem for twenty years whether there is an efficient quantum algorithm for finding such a path, or if the path-finding problem is hard even for quantum computers. We show that a natural class of efficient quantum algorithms provably cannot find a path from entrance to exit. Specifically, we consider algorithms that, within each branch of their superposition, always store a set of vertex labels that form a connected subgraph including the entrance, and that only provide these vertex labels as inputs to the oracle. While this does not rule out the possibility of a quantum algorithm that efficiently finds a path, it is unclear how an algorithm could benefit by deviating from this behavior. Our no-go result suggests that, for some problems, quantum algorithms must necessarily forget the path they take to reach a solution in order to outperform classical computation.

Andrew M. Childs, Matthew Coudron, and Amin Shiraz Gilani. Quantum Algorithms and the Power of Forgetting. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 37:1-37:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{childs_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.37, author = {Childs, Andrew M. and Coudron, Matthew and Gilani, Amin Shiraz}, title = {{Quantum Algorithms and the Power of Forgetting}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {37:1--37:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175408}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.37}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum algorithms, quantum query complexity} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

We study quantum algorithms that learn properties of a matrix using queries that return its action on an input vector. We show that for various problems, including computing the trace, determinant, or rank of a matrix or solving a linear system that it specifies, quantum computers do not provide an asymptotic speedup over classical computation. On the other hand, we show that for some problems, such as computing the parities of rows or columns or deciding if there are two identical rows or columns, quantum computers provide exponential speedup. We demonstrate this by showing equivalence between models that provide matrix-vector products, vector-matrix products, and vector-matrix-vector products, whereas the power of these models can vary significantly for classical computation.

Andrew M. Childs, Shih-Han Hung, and Tongyang Li. Quantum Query Complexity with Matrix-Vector Products. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 55:1-55:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{childs_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.55, author = {Childs, Andrew M. and Hung, Shih-Han and Li, Tongyang}, title = {{Quantum Query Complexity with Matrix-Vector Products}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {55:1--55:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141242}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.55}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum algorithms, quantum query complexity, matrix-vector products} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 158, 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)

We study how efficiently a k-element set S⊆[n] can be learned from a uniform superposition |S> of its elements. One can think of |S>=∑_{i∈S}|i>/√|S| as the quantum version of a uniformly random sample over S, as in the classical analysis of the "coupon collector problem." We show that if k is close to n, then we can learn S using asymptotically fewer quantum samples than random samples. In particular, if there are n-k=O(1) missing elements then O(k) copies of |S> suffice, in contrast to the Θ(k log k) random samples needed by a classical coupon collector. On the other hand, if n-k=Ω(k), then Ω(k log k) quantum samples are necessary.
More generally, we give tight bounds on the number of quantum samples needed for every k and n, and we give efficient quantum learning algorithms. We also give tight bounds in the model where we can additionally reflect through |S>. Finally, we relate coupon collection to a known example separating proper and improper PAC learning that turns out to show no separation in the quantum case.

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Aleksandrs Belovs, Andrew M. Childs, Robin Kothari, Ansis Rosmanis, and Ronald de Wolf. Quantum Coupon Collector. In 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 158, pp. 10:1-10:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2020.10, author = {Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Belovs, Aleksandrs and Childs, Andrew M. and Kothari, Robin and Rosmanis, Ansis and de Wolf, Ronald}, title = {{Quantum Coupon Collector}}, booktitle = {15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)}, pages = {10:1--10:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-146-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {158}, editor = {Flammia, Steven T.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120692}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.10}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum algorithms, Adversary method, Coupon collector, Quantum learning theory} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 135, 14th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2019)

Quantum computer architectures impose restrictions on qubit interactions. We propose efficient circuit transformations that modify a given quantum circuit to fit an architecture, allowing for any initial and final mapping of circuit qubits to architecture qubits. To achieve this, we first consider the qubit movement subproblem and use the ROUTING VIA MATCHINGS framework to prove tighter bounds on parallel routing. In practice, we only need to perform partial permutations, so we generalize ROUTING VIA MATCHINGS to that setting. We give new routing procedures for common architecture graphs and for the generalized hierarchical product of graphs, which produces subgraphs of the Cartesian product. Secondly, for serial routing, we consider the TOKEN SWAPPING framework and extend a 4-approximation algorithm for general graphs to support partial permutations. We apply these routing procedures to give several circuit transformations, using various heuristic qubit placement subroutines. We implement these transformations in software and compare their performance for large quantum circuits on grid and modular architectures, identifying strategies that work well in practice.

Andrew M. Childs, Eddie Schoute, and Cem M. Unsal. Circuit Transformations for Quantum Architectures. In 14th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 135, pp. 3:1-3:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{childs_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2019.3, author = {Childs, Andrew M. and Schoute, Eddie and Unsal, Cem M.}, title = {{Circuit Transformations for Quantum Architectures}}, booktitle = {14th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2019)}, pages = {3:1--3:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-112-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {135}, editor = {van Dam, Wim and Man\v{c}inska, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2019.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-103958}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2019.3}, annote = {Keywords: quantum circuit, quantum architectures, circuit mapping} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

We consider the number of quantum queries required to determine the coefficients of a degree-d polynomial over F_q. A lower bound shown independently by Kane and Kutin and by Meyer and Pommersheim shows that d/2 + 1/2 quantum queries are needed to solve this problem with bounded error, whereas an algorithm of Boneh and Zhandry shows that d quantum queries are sufficient. We show that the lower bound is achievable: d/2 + 1/2 quantum queries suffice to determine the polynomial with bounded error. Furthermore, we show that d/2 + 1 queries suffice to achieve probability approaching 1 for large q. These upper bounds improve results of Boneh and Zhandry on the insecurity of cryptographic protocols against quantum attacks. We also show that our algorithm’s success probability as a function of the number of queries is precisely optimal. Furthermore, the algorithm can be implemented with gate complexity poly(log(q)) with negligible decrease in the success probability. We end with a conjecture about the quantum query complexity of multivariate polynomial interpolation.

Andrew M. Childs, Wim van Dam, Shih-Han Hung, and Igor E. Shparlinski. Optimal Quantum Algorithm for Polynomial Interpolation. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 16:1-16:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{childs_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.16, author = {Childs, Andrew M. and van Dam, Wim and Hung, Shih-Han and Shparlinski, Igor E.}, title = {{Optimal Quantum Algorithm for Polynomial Interpolation}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {16:1--16:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62985}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.16}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum algorithms, query complexity, polynomial interpolation, finite fields} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 22, 8th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2013)

We study the quantum query complexity of the Boolean hidden shift problem. Given oracle access to f(x+s) for a known Boolean function f, the task is to determine the n-bit string s. The quantum query complexity of this problem depends strongly on f. We demonstrate that the easiest instances of this problem correspond to bent functions, in the sense that an exact one-query algorithm exists if and only if the function is bent. We partially characterize the hardest instances, which include delta functions. Moreover, we show that the problem is easy for random functions, since two queries suffice. Our algorithm for random functions is based on performing the pretty good measurement on several copies of a certain state; its analysis relies on the Fourier transform. We also use this approach to improve the quantum rejection sampling approach to the Boolean hidden shift problem.

Andrew M. Childs, Robin Kothari, Maris Ozols, and Martin Roetteler. Easy and Hard Functions for the Boolean Hidden Shift Problem. In 8th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 22, pp. 50-79, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{childs_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2013.50, author = {Childs, Andrew M. and Kothari, Robin and Ozols, Maris and Roetteler, Martin}, title = {{Easy and Hard Functions for the Boolean Hidden Shift Problem}}, booktitle = {8th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2013)}, pages = {50--79}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-55-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2013}, volume = {22}, editor = {Severini, Simone and Brandao, Fernando}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2013.50}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-43203}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2013.50}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean hidden shift problem, quantum algorithms, query complexity, Fourier transform, bent functions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 9, 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)

We study the quantum query complexity of minor-closed graph properties, which include such problems as determining whether an $n$-vertex graph is planar, is a forest, or does not contain a path of a given length. We show that most minor-closed properties -- those that cannot be characterized by a finite set of forbidden subgraphs -- have quantum query complexity Theta(n^(3/2)). To establish this, we prove an adversary lower bound using a detailed analysis of the structure of minor-closed properties with respect to forbidden topological minors and forbidden subgraphs. On the other hand, we show that minor-closed properties (and more generally, sparse graph properties) that can be characterized by finitely many forbidden subgraphs can be solved strictly faster, in o(n^(3/2)) queries. Our algorithms are a novel application of the quantum walk search framework and give improved upper bounds for several subgraph-finding problems.

Andrew M. Childs and Robin Kothari. Quantum query complexity of minor-closed graph properties. In 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 9, pp. 661-672, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{childs_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2011.661, author = {Childs, Andrew M. and Kothari, Robin}, title = {{Quantum query complexity of minor-closed graph properties}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)}, pages = {661--672}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-25-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2011}, volume = {9}, editor = {Schwentick, Thomas and D\"{u}rr, Christoph}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.661}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-30521}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.661}, annote = {Keywords: quatum query complexity, quantum algorithms, lower bounds, graph minors, graph properties} }

X

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Feedback submitted

Please try again later or send an E-mail