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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 226, 11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022)

We study the space reachable by rolling a 3D convex polyhedron on a 2D periodic tessellation in the xy-plane, where at every step a face of the polyhedron must coincide exactly with a tile of the tessellation it rests upon, and the polyhedron rotates around one of the incident edges of that face until the neighboring face hits the xy plane. If the whole plane can be reached by a sequence of such rolls, we call the polyhedron a plane roller for the given tessellation. We further classify polyhedra that reach a constant fraction of the plane, an infinite area but vanishing fraction of the plane, or a bounded area as hollow-plane rollers, band rollers, and bounded rollers respectively. We present a polynomial-time algorithm to determine the set of tiles in a given periodic tessellation reachable by a given polyhedron from a given starting position, which in particular determines the roller type of the polyhedron and tessellation. Using this algorithm, we compute the reachability for every regular-faced convex polyhedron on every regular-tiled (≤ 4)-uniform tessellation.

Akira Baes, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Elizabeth Hartung, Stefan Langerman, Joseph O'Rourke, Ryuhei Uehara, Yushi Uno, and Aaron Williams. Rolling Polyhedra on Tessellations. In 11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 226, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{baes_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2022.6, author = {Baes, Akira and Demaine, Erik D. and Demaine, Martin L. and Hartung, Elizabeth and Langerman, Stefan and O'Rourke, Joseph and Uehara, Ryuhei and Uno, Yushi and Williams, Aaron}, title = {{Rolling Polyhedra on Tessellations}}, booktitle = {11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022)}, pages = {6:1--6:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-232-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {226}, editor = {Fraigniaud, Pierre and Uno, Yushi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2022.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-159761}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2022.6}, annote = {Keywords: polyhedra, tilings} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 157, 10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021) (2020)

In the Nikoli pencil-and-paper game Tatamibari, a puzzle consists of an m x n grid of cells, where each cell possibly contains a clue among ⊞, ⊟, ◫. The goal is to partition the grid into disjoint rectangles, where every rectangle contains exactly one clue, rectangles containing ⊞ are square, rectangles containing ⊟ are strictly longer horizontally than vertically, rectangles containing ◫ are strictly longer vertically than horizontally, and no four rectangles share a corner. We prove this puzzle NP-complete, establishing a Nikoli gap of 16 years. Along the way, we introduce a gadget framework for proving hardness of similar puzzles involving area coverage, and show that it applies to an existing NP-hardness proof for Spiral Galaxies. We also present a mathematical puzzle font for Tatamibari.

Aviv Adler, Jeffrey Bosboom, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Quanquan C. Liu, and Jayson Lynch. Tatamibari Is NP-Complete. In 10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 157, pp. 1:1-1:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{adler_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2021.1, author = {Adler, Aviv and Bosboom, Jeffrey and Demaine, Erik D. and Demaine, Martin L. and Liu, Quanquan C. and Lynch, Jayson}, title = {{Tatamibari Is NP-Complete}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021)}, pages = {1:1--1:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-145-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {157}, editor = {Farach-Colton, Martin and Prencipe, Giuseppe and Uehara, Ryuhei}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2021.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-127624}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2021.1}, annote = {Keywords: Nikoli puzzles, NP-hardness, rectangle covering} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 51, 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)

We exactly settle the complexity of graph realization, graph rigidity, and graph global rigidity as applied to three types of graphs: "globally noncrossing" graphs, which avoid crossings in all of their configurations; matchstick graphs, with unit-length edges and where only noncrossing configurations are considered; and unrestricted graphs (crossings allowed) with unit edge lengths (or in the global rigidity case, edge lengths in {1,2}). We show that all nine of these questions are complete for the class Exists-R, defined by the Existential Theory of the Reals, or its complement Forall-R; in particular, each problem is (co)NP-hard.
One of these nine results - that realization of unit-distance graphs is Exists-R-complete - was shown previously by Schaefer (2013), but the other eight are new. We strengthen several prior results. Matchstick graph realization was known to be NP-hard (Eades & Wormald 1990, or Cabello et al. 2007), but its membership in NP remained open; we show it is complete for the (possibly) larger class Exists-R. Global rigidity of graphs with edge lengths in {1,2} was known to be coNP-hard (Saxe 1979); we show it is Forall-R-complete.
The majority of the paper is devoted to proving an analog of Kempe's Universality Theorem - informally, "there is a linkage to sign your name" - for globally noncrossing linkages. In particular, we show that any polynomial curve phi(x,y)=0 can be traced by a noncrossing linkage, settling an open problem from 2004. More generally, we show that the nontrivial regions in the plane that may be traced by a noncrossing linkage are precisely the compact semialgebraic regions. Thus, no drawing power is lost by restricting to noncrossing linkages. We prove analogous results for matchstick linkages and unit-distance linkages as well.

Zachary Abel, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Sarah Eisenstat, Jayson Lynch, and Tao B. Schardl. Who Needs Crossings? Hardness of Plane Graph Rigidity. In 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 51, pp. 3:1-3:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{abel_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.3, author = {Abel, Zachary and Demaine, Erik D. and Demaine, Martin L. and Eisenstat, Sarah and Lynch, Jayson and Schardl, Tao B.}, title = {{Who Needs Crossings? Hardness of Plane Graph Rigidity}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)}, pages = {3:1--3:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-009-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {51}, editor = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor and Lubiw, Anna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58951}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.3}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Drawing, Graph Rigidity Theory, Graph Global Rigidity, Linkages, Complexity Theory, Computational Geometry} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 20, 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013)

We study the difference between the standard seeded model (aTAM) of tile self-assembly, and the "seedless" two-handed model of tile self-assembly (2HAM). Most of our results suggest that the two-handed model is more powerful. In particular, we show how to simulate any seeded system with a two-handed system that is essentially just a constant factor larger. We exhibit finite shapes with a busy-beaver separation in the number of distinct tiles required by seeded versus two-handed, and exhibit an infinite shape that can be constructed two-handed but not seeded. Finally, we show that verifying whether a given system uniquely assembles a desired supertile is co-NP-complete in the two-handed model, while it was known to be polynomially solvable in the seeded model.

Sarah Cannon, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Sarah Eisenstat, Matthew J. Patitz, Robert T. Schweller, Scott M Summers, and Andrew Winslow. Two Hands Are Better Than One (up to constant factors): Self-Assembly In The 2HAM vs. aTAM. In 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 20, pp. 172-184, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)

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@InProceedings{cannon_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2013.172, author = {Cannon, Sarah and Demaine, Erik D. and Demaine, Martin L. and Eisenstat, Sarah and Patitz, Matthew J. and Schweller, Robert T. and Summers, Scott M and Winslow, Andrew}, title = {{Two Hands Are Better Than One (up to constant factors): Self-Assembly In The 2HAM vs. aTAM}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013)}, pages = {172--184}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-50-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2013}, volume = {20}, editor = {Portier, Natacha and Wilke, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.172}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-39321}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.172}, annote = {Keywords: abstract tile assembly model, hierarchical tile assembly model, two-handed tile assembly model, algorithmic self-assembly, DNA computing, biocomputing} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 20, 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013)

We prove that every simple polygon can be made as a (2D) pop-up card/book that opens to any desired angle between 0 and 360°.
More precisely, given a simple polygon attached to the two walls of the open pop-up, our polynomial-time algorithm subdivides the polygon into a single-degree-of-freedom linkage structure, such that closing the pop-up flattens the linkage without collision. This result solves an open problem of Hara and Sugihara from 2009. We also show how to obtain a more efficient construction for the special case of orthogonal polygons, and how to make 3D orthogonal polyhedra, from pop-ups that open to 90°, 180°, 270°, or 360°.

Zachary Abel, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Sarah Eisenstat, Anna Lubiw, André Schulz, Diane L. Souvaine, Giovanni Viglietta, and Andrew Winslow. Algorithms for Designing Pop-Up Cards. In 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 20, pp. 269-280, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)

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@InProceedings{abel_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2013.269, author = {Abel, Zachary and Demaine, Erik D. and Demaine, Martin L. and Eisenstat, Sarah and Lubiw, Anna and Schulz, Andr\'{e} and Souvaine, Diane L. and Viglietta, Giovanni and Winslow, Andrew}, title = {{Algorithms for Designing Pop-Up Cards}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013)}, pages = {269--280}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-50-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2013}, volume = {20}, editor = {Portier, Natacha and Wilke, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.269}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-39407}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.269}, annote = {Keywords: geometric folding, linkages, universality} }

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