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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

We consider a generalization of binary search in linear orders to the domain of weighted trees. The goal is to design an adaptive search strategy whose aim is to locate an unknown target vertex of a given tree. Each query to a vertex v incurs a non-negative cost ω(v) (that can be interpreted as the duration of the query) and returns a feedback that either v is the target or the edge incident to v is given that is on the path towards the target. The goal of the algorithm is to find a strategy that minimizes the worst-case total cost. We propose a constant-factor approximation algorithm for trees with a monotonic cost function. Such function is defined as follows: there exists a vertex r such that for any two vertices u,v on any path connecting r with a leaf it holds that if u is closer to r than v, then ω(u) ≥ ω(v). The best known approximation algorithm for general weight functions has the ratio of O{√{log n}} [Dereniowski et al. ICALP 2017] and it remains as a challenging open question whether constant-factor approximation is achievable in such case. This gives our first motivation towards considering monotonic cost functions and the second one lies in the potential applications.

Dariusz Dereniowski and Izajasz Wrosz. Constant-Factor Approximation Algorithm for Binary Search in Trees with Monotonic Query Times. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 42:1-42:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{dereniowski_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.42, author = {Dereniowski, Dariusz and Wrosz, Izajasz}, title = {{Constant-Factor Approximation Algorithm for Binary Search in Trees with Monotonic Query Times}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {42:1--42:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168405}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.42}, annote = {Keywords: binary search, graph search, approximation algorithm, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

A robot modeled as a deterministic finite automaton has to build a structure from material available to it. The robot navigates in the infinite oriented grid Z x Z. Some cells of the grid are full (contain a brick) and others are empty. The subgraph of the grid induced by full cells, called the field, is initially connected. The (Manhattan) distance between the farthest cells of the field is called its span. The robot starts at a full cell. It can carry at most one brick at a time. At each step it can pick a brick from a full cell, move to an adjacent cell and drop a brick at an empty cell. The aim of the robot is to construct the most compact possible structure composed of all bricks, i.e., a nest. That is, the robot has to move all bricks in such a way that the span of the resulting field be the smallest.
Our main result is the design of a deterministic finite automaton that accomplishes this task and subsequently stops, for every initially connected field, in time O(sz), where s is the span of the initial field and z is the number of bricks. We show that this complexity is optimal.

Jurek Czyzowicz, Dariusz Dereniowski, and Andrzej Pelc. Building a Nest by an Automaton. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 35:1-35:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{czyzowicz_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.35, author = {Czyzowicz, Jurek and Dereniowski, Dariusz and Pelc, Andrzej}, title = {{Building a Nest by an Automaton}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {35:1--35:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111564}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.35}, annote = {Keywords: finite automaton, plane, grid, construction task, brick, mobile agent, robot} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 69, 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)

We consider a problem of searching for an unknown target vertex t in a (possibly edge-weighted) graph. Each vertex-query points to a vertex v and the response either admits that v is the target or provides any neighbor s of v that lies on a shortest path from v to t. This model has been introduced for trees by Onak and Parys [FOCS 2006] and for general graphs by Emamjomeh-Zadeh et al. [STOC 2016]. In the latter, the authors provide algorithms for the error-less case and for the independent noise model (where each query independently receives an erroneous answer with known probability p<1/2 and a correct one with probability 1-p).
We study this problem both with adversarial errors and independent noise models. First, we show an algorithm that needs at most (log_2 n)/(1 - H(r)) queries in case of adversarial errors, where the adversary is bounded with its rate of errors by a known constant r<1/2. Our algorithm is in fact a simplification of previous work, and our refinement lies in invoking an amortization argument. We then show that our algorithm coupled with a Chernoff bound argument leads to a simpler algorithm for the independent noise model and has a query complexity that is both simpler and asymptotically better than the one of Emamjomeh-Zadeh et al. [STOC 2016].
Our approach has a wide range of applications. First, it improves and simplifies the Robust Interactive Learning framework proposed by Emamjomeh-Zadeh and Kempe [NIPS 2017]. Secondly, performing analogous analysis for edge-queries (where a query to an edge e returns its endpoint that is closer to the target) we actually recover (as a special case) a noisy binary search algorithm that is asymptotically optimal, matching the complexity of Feige et al. [SIAM J. Comput. 1994]. Thirdly, we improve and simplify upon an algorithm for searching of unbounded domains due to Aslam and Dhagat [STOC 1991].

Dariusz Dereniowski, Stefan Tiegel, Przemyslaw Uznanski, and Daniel Wolleb-Graf. A Framework for Searching in Graphs in the Presence of Errors. In 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 69, pp. 4:1-4:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dereniowski_et_al:OASIcs.SOSA.2019.4, author = {Dereniowski, Dariusz and Tiegel, Stefan and Uznanski, Przemyslaw and Wolleb-Graf, Daniel}, title = {{A Framework for Searching in Graphs in the Presence of Errors}}, booktitle = {2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)}, pages = {4:1--4:17}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-099-6}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2019}, volume = {69}, editor = {Fineman, Jeremy T. and Mitzenmacher, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100305}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.4}, annote = {Keywords: graph algorithms, noisy binary search, query complexity, reliability} }

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Brief Announcement

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

Depth first search is a natural algorithmic technique for constructing a closed route that visits all vertices of a graph. The length of such route equals, in an edge-weighted tree, twice the total weight of all edges of the tree and this is asymptotically optimal over all exploration strategies. This paper considers a variant of such search strategies where the length of each route is bounded by a positive integer B (e.g. due to limited energy resources of the searcher). The objective is to cover all the edges of a tree T using the minimum number of routes, each starting and ending at the root and each being of length at most B. To this end, we analyze the following natural greedy tree traversal process that is based on decomposing a depth first search traversal into a sequence of limited length routes. Given any arbitrary depth first search traversal R of the tree T, we cover R with routes R_1,...,R_l, each of length at most B such that: R_i starts at the root, reaches directly the farthest point of R visited by R_{i-1}, then R_i continues along the path R as far as possible, and finally R_i returns to the root. We call the above algorithm piecemeal-DFS and we prove that it achieves the asymptotically minimal number of routes l, regardless of the choice of R. Our analysis also shows that the total length of the traversal (and thus the traversal time) of piecemeal-DFS is asymptotically minimum over all energy-constrained exploration strategies. The fact that R can be chosen arbitrarily means that the exploration strategy can be constructed in an online fashion when the input tree T is not known in advance. Each route R_i can be constructed without any knowledge of the yet unvisited part of T. Surprisingly, our results show that depth first search is efficient for energy constrained exploration of trees, even though it is known that the same does not hold for energy constrained exploration of arbitrary graphs.

Shantanu Das, Dariusz Dereniowski, and Przemyslaw Uznanski. Brief Announcement: Energy Constrained Depth First Search. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 165:1-165:5, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.165, author = {Das, Shantanu and Dereniowski, Dariusz and Uznanski, Przemyslaw}, title = {{Brief Announcement: Energy Constrained Depth First Search}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {165:1--165:5}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.165}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91693}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.165}, annote = {Keywords: DFS traversal, distributed algorithm, graph exploration, piecemeal exploration, online exploration} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We consider the following generalization of the binary search problem. A search strategy is required to locate an unknown target node t in a given tree T. Upon querying a node v of the tree, the strategy receives as a reply an indication of the connected component of T\{v} containing the target t. The cost of querying each node is given by a known non-negative weight function, and the considered objective is to minimize the total query cost for a worst-case choice of the target.
Designing an optimal strategy for a weighted tree search instance is known to be strongly NP-hard, in contrast to the unweighted variant of the problem which can be solved optimally in linear time. Here, we show that weighted tree search admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme (QPTAS): for any 0 < epsilon < 1, there exists a (1+epsilon)-approximation strategy with a computation time of n^O(log n / epsilon^2). Thus, the problem is not APX-hard, unless NP is contained in DTIME(n^O(log n)). By applying a generic reduction, we obtain as a corollary that the studied problem admits a polynomial-time O(sqrt(log n))-approximation.
This improves previous tilde-O(log n)-approximation approaches, where the tilde-O-notation disregards O(poly log log n)-factors.

Dariusz Dereniowski, Adrian Kosowski, Przemyslaw Uznanski, and Mengchuan Zou. Approximation Strategies for Generalized Binary Search in Weighted Trees. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 84:1-84:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{dereniowski_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.84, author = {Dereniowski, Dariusz and Kosowski, Adrian and Uznanski, Przemyslaw and Zou, Mengchuan}, title = {{Approximation Strategies for Generalized Binary Search in Weighted Trees}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {84:1--84:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.84}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74507}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.84}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithm, Adaptive Algorithm, Graph Search, Binary Search, Vertex Ranking, Trees} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 25, 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)

The rotor-router mechanism was introduced as a deterministic alternative to the random walk in undirected graphs. In this model, a set of k identical walkers is deployed in parallel, starting from a chosen subset of nodes, and moving around the graph in synchronous steps. During the process, each node maintains a cyclic ordering of its outgoing arcs, and successively propagates walkers which visit it along its outgoing arcs in round-robin fashion, according to the fixed ordering.
We consider the cover time of such a system, i.e., the number of steps after which each node has been visited by at least one walk, regardless of the starting locations of the walks. In the case of k=1, [Yanovski et al., 2003] and [Bampas et al., 2009] showed that a single walk achieves a cover time of exactly Theta(mD) for any n-node graph with m edges and diameter D, and that the walker eventually stabilizes to a traversal of an Eulerian circuit on the set of all directed edges of the graph. For k>1 parallel walks, no similar structural behaviour can be observed.
In this work we provide tight bounds on the cover time of k parallel rotor walks in a graph. We show that this cover time is at most (mD/log(k)) and at least Theta(mD/k) for any graph, which corresponds to a speedup of between Theta(log(k)) and Theta(k) with respect to the cover time of a single walk. Both of these extremal values of speedup are achieved for some graph classes. Our results hold for up to a polynomially large number of walks, k=O(poly(n)).

Dariusz Dereniowski, Adrian Kosowski, Dominik Pajak, and Przemyslaw Uznanski. Bounds on the Cover Time of Parallel Rotor Walks. In 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 25, pp. 263-275, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{dereniowski_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2014.263, author = {Dereniowski, Dariusz and Kosowski, Adrian and Pajak, Dominik and Uznanski, Przemyslaw}, title = {{Bounds on the Cover Time of Parallel Rotor Walks}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)}, pages = {263--275}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-65-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {25}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Portier, Natacha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.263}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-44637}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.263}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed graph exploration, Rotor-Router, Collaborative robots, Parallel random walks, Derandomization} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 9, 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)

It is proven that the connected pathwidth of any graph G is at most 2*pw(G)+1, where pw(G) is the pathwidth of G. The method is constructive, i.e. it yields an efficient algorithm that for a given path decomposition of width k computes a connected path decomposition of width at most 2k+1. The running time of the algorithm is O(dk^2), where d is the number of `bags' in the input path decomposition.
The motivation for studying connected path decompositions comes from the connection between the pathwidth and some graph searching games. One of the advantages of the above bound for connected pathwidth is an inequality $csn(G) <= 2*sn(G)+3$, where $csn(G)$ is the connected search number of a graph $G$ and $sn(G)$ is its search number, which holds for any graph $G$. Moreover, the algorithm presented in this work can be used to convert efficiently a given search strategy using $k$ searchers into a connected one using $2k+3$ searchers and starting at arbitrary homebase.

Dariusz Dereniowski. From Pathwidth to Connected Pathwidth. In 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 9, pp. 416-427, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InProceedings{dereniowski:LIPIcs.STACS.2011.416, author = {Dereniowski, Dariusz}, title = {{From Pathwidth to Connected Pathwidth}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)}, pages = {416--427}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-25-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2011}, volume = {9}, editor = {Schwentick, Thomas and D\"{u}rr, Christoph}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.416}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-30311}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.416}, annote = {Keywords: connected pathwidth, connected searching, fugitive search games, graph searching, pathwidth} }

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