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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

We consider the problem of subset selection for 𝓁_p subspace approximation, that is, to efficiently find a small subset of data points such that solving the problem optimally for this subset gives a good approximation to solving the problem optimally for the original input. Previously known subset selection algorithms based on volume sampling and adaptive sampling [Deshpande and Varadarajan, 2007], for the general case of p ∈ [1, ∞), require multiple passes over the data. In this paper, we give a one-pass subset selection with an additive approximation guarantee for 𝓁_p subspace approximation, for any p ∈ [1, ∞). Earlier subset selection algorithms that give a one-pass multiplicative (1+ε) approximation work under the special cases. Cohen et al. [Michael B. Cohen et al., 2017] gives a one-pass subset section that offers multiplicative (1+ε) approximation guarantee for the special case of 𝓁₂ subspace approximation. Mahabadi et al. [Sepideh Mahabadi et al., 2020] gives a one-pass noisy subset selection with (1+ε) approximation guarantee for 𝓁_p subspace approximation when p ∈ {1, 2}. Our subset selection algorithm gives a weaker, additive approximation guarantee, but it works for any p ∈ [1, ∞).

Amit Deshpande and Rameshwar Pratap. One-Pass Additive-Error Subset Selection for 𝓁_p Subspace Approximation. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 51:1-51:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{deshpande_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.51, author = {Deshpande, Amit and Pratap, Rameshwar}, title = {{One-Pass Additive-Error Subset Selection for 𝓁\underlinep Subspace Approximation}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {51:1--51:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163924}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.51}, annote = {Keywords: Subspace approximation, streaming algorithms, low-rank approximation, adaptive sampling, volume sampling, subset selection} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

Determinantal Point Processes (DPPs) are probabilistic models that arise in quantum physics and random matrix theory and have recently found numerous applications in theoretical computer science and machine learning. DPPs define probability distributions over subsets of a given ground set, they exhibit interesting properties such as negative correlation, and, unlike other models of negative correlation such as Markov random fields, have efficient algorithms for sampling. When applied to kernel methods in machine learning, DPPs favor subsets of the given data with more diverse features. However, many real-world applications require efficient algorithms to sample from DPPs with additional constraints on the sampled subset, e.g., partition or matroid constraints that are important from the viewpoint of ensuring priors, resource or fairness constraints on the sampled subset. Whether one can efficiently sample from DPPs in such constrained settings is an important problem that was first raised in a survey of DPPs for machine learning by Kulesza and Taskar and studied in some recent works.
The main contribution of this paper is the first resolution of the complexity of sampling from DPPs with constraints. On the one hand, we give exact efficient algorithms for sampling from constrained DPPs when the description of the constraints is in unary; this includes special cases of practical importance such as a small number of partition, knapsack or budget constraints. On the other hand, we prove that when the constraints are specified in binary, this problem is #P-hard via a reduction from the problem of computing mixed discriminants; implying that it may be unlikely that there is an FPRAS. Technically, our algorithmic result benefits from viewing the constrained sampling problem via the lens of polynomials and we obtain our complexity results by providing an equivalence between computing mixed discriminants and sampling from partition constrained DPPs. As a consequence, we obtain a few corollaries of independent interest: 1) An algorithm to count, sample (and, hence, optimize) over the base polytope of regular matroids when there are additional (succinct) budget constraints and,
2) An algorithm to evaluate and compute mixed characteristic polynomials, that played a central role in the resolution of the Kadison-Singer problem, for certain special cases.

L. Elisa Celis, Amit Deshpande, Tarun Kathuria, Damian Straszak, and Nisheeth K. Vishnoi. On the Complexity of Constrained Determinantal Point Processes. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 36:1-36:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{celis_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.36, author = {Celis, L. Elisa and Deshpande, Amit and Kathuria, Tarun and Straszak, Damian and Vishnoi, Nisheeth K.}, title = {{On the Complexity of Constrained Determinantal Point Processes}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {36:1--36:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75851}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.36}, annote = {Keywords: determinantal point processes, constraints, matroids, sampling and counting, polynomials, mixed discriminant} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 65, 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)

Goemans showed that any n points x_1,..., x_n in d-dimensions satisfying l_2^2 triangle inequalities can be embedded into l_{1}, with worst-case distortion at most sqrt{d}. We consider an extension of this theorem to the case when the points are approximately low-dimensional as opposed to exactly low-dimensional, and prove the following analogous theorem, albeit with average distortion guarantees: There exists an l_{2}^{2}-to-l_{1} embedding with average distortion at most the stable rank, sr(M), of the matrix M consisting of columns {x_i-x_j}_{i<j}. Average distortion embedding suffices for applications such as the SPARSEST CUT problem. Our embedding gives an approximation algorithm for the SPARSEST CUT problem on low threshold-rank graphs, where earlier work was inspired by Lasserre SDP hierarchy, and improves on a previous result of the first and third author [Deshpande and Venkat, in Proc. 17th APPROX, 2014]. Our ideas give a new perspective on l_{2}^{2} metric, an alternate proof of Goemans' theorem, and a simpler proof for average distortion sqrt{d}.

Amit Deshpande, Prahladh Harsha, and Rakesh Venkat. Embedding Approximately Low-Dimensional l_2^2 Metrics into l_1. In 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 65, pp. 10:1-10:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{deshpande_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.10, author = {Deshpande, Amit and Harsha, Prahladh and Venkat, Rakesh}, title = {{Embedding Approximately Low-Dimensional l\underline2^2 Metrics into l\underline1}}, booktitle = {36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)}, pages = {10:1--10:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-027-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {65}, editor = {Lal, Akash and Akshay, S. and Saurabh, Saket and Sen, Sandeep}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68456}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.10}, annote = {Keywords: Metric Embeddings, Sparsest Cut, Negative type metrics, Approximation Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 28, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)

Guruswami and Sinop give a O(1/delta) approximation guarantee for the non-uniform Sparsest Cut problem by solving O(r)-level Lasserre semidefinite constraints, provided that the generalized eigenvalues of the Laplacians of the cost and demand graphs satisfy a certain spectral condition, namely, the (r+1)-th generalized eigenvalue is at least OPT/(1-delta). Their key idea is a rounding technique that first maps a vector-valued solution to [0,1] using appropriately scaled projections onto Lasserre vectors. In this paper, we show that similar projections and analysis can be obtained using only l_2^2 triangle inequality constraints. This results in a O(r/delta^2) approximation guarantee for the non-uniform Sparsest Cut problem by adding only l_2^2 triangle inequality constraints to the usual semidefinite program, provided that the same spectral condition, the (r+1)-th generalized eigenvalue is at least OPT/(1-delta), holds.

Amit Deshpande and Rakesh Venkat. Guruswami-Sinop Rounding without Higher Level Lasserre. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 28, pp. 105-114, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{deshpande_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.105, author = {Deshpande, Amit and Venkat, Rakesh}, title = {{Guruswami-Sinop Rounding without Higher Level Lasserre}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)}, pages = {105--114}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-74-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {28}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Devanur, Nikhil R. and Moore, Cristopher}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.105}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-46911}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.105}, annote = {Keywords: Sparsest Cut, Lasserre Hierarchy, Metric embeddings} }