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Documents authored by Fohler, Gerhard


Document
Randomization as Mitigation of Directed Timing Inference Based Attacks on Time-Triggered Real-Time Systems with Task Replication

Authors: Kristin Krüger, Nils Vreman, Richard Pates, Martina Maggio, Marcus Völp, and Gerhard Fohler

Published in: LITES, Volume 7, Issue 1 (2021): Special Issue on Embedded System Security. Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, Volume 7, Issue 1


Abstract
Time-triggered real-time systems achieve deterministic behavior using schedules that are constructed offline, based on scheduling constraints. Their deterministic behavior makes time-triggered systems suitable for usage in safety-critical environments, like avionics. However, this determinism also allows attackers to fine-tune attacks that can be carried out after studying the behavior of the system through side channels, targeting safety-critical victim tasks. Replication -- i.e., the execution of task variants across different cores -- is inherently able to tolerate both accidental and malicious faults (i.e. attacks) as long as these faults are independent of one another. Yet, targeted attacks on the timing behavior of tasks which utilize information gained about the system behavior violate the fault independence assumption fault tolerance is based on. This violation may give attackers the opportunity to compromise all replicas simultaneously, in particular if they can mount the attack from already compromised components. In this paper, we analyze vulnerabilities of time-triggered systems, focusing on safety-certified multicore real-time systems. We introduce two runtime mitigation strategies to withstand directed timing inference based attacks: (i) schedule randomization at slot level, and (ii) randomization within a set of offline constructed schedules. We evaluate these mitigation strategies with synthetic experiments and a real case study to show their effectiveness and practicality.

Cite as

Kristin Krüger, Nils Vreman, Richard Pates, Martina Maggio, Marcus Völp, and Gerhard Fohler. Randomization as Mitigation of Directed Timing Inference Based Attacks on Time-Triggered Real-Time Systems with Task Replication. In LITES, Volume 7, Issue 1 (2021): Special Issue on Embedded System Security. Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 01:1-01:29, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@Article{kruger_et_al:LITES.7.1.1,
  author =	{Kr\"{u}ger, Kristin and Vreman, Nils and Pates, Richard and Maggio, Martina and V\"{o}lp, Marcus and Fohler, Gerhard},
  title =	{{Randomization as Mitigation of Directed Timing Inference Based Attacks on Time-Triggered Real-Time Systems with Task Replication}},
  journal =	{Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems},
  pages =	{01:1--01:29},
  ISSN =	{2199-2002},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{7},
  number =	{1},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LITES.7.1.1},
  doi =		{10.4230/LITES.7.1.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: real-time systems, time-triggered systems, security}
}
Document
System Calls Instrumentation for Intrusion Detection in Embedded Mixed-Criticality Systems

Authors: Marine Kadar, Sergey Tverdyshev, and Gerhard Fohler

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 73, 4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems (CERTS 2019)


Abstract
System call relative information such as occurrences, type, parameters, and return values are well established metrics to reveal intrusions in a system software. Many Host Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS) from research and industry analyze these data for continuous system monitoring at runtime. Despite a significant false alarm rate, this type of defense offers high detection precision for both known and zero-day attacks. Recent research focuses on HIDS deployment for desktop computers. Yet, the integration of such run-time monitoring solution in mixed-criticality embedded systems has not been discussed. Because of the cohabitation of potentially vulnerable non-critical software with critical software, securing mixed-criticality systems is a non trivial but essential issue. Thus, we propose a methodology to evaluate the impact of deploying system call instrumentation in such context. We analyze the impact in a concrete use-case with PikeOS real-time hypervisor.

Cite as

Marine Kadar, Sergey Tverdyshev, and Gerhard Fohler. System Calls Instrumentation for Intrusion Detection in Embedded Mixed-Criticality Systems. In 4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems (CERTS 2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 73, pp. 2:1-2:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{kadar_et_al:OASIcs.CERTS.2019.2,
  author =	{Kadar, Marine and Tverdyshev, Sergey and Fohler, Gerhard},
  title =	{{System Calls Instrumentation for Intrusion Detection in Embedded Mixed-Criticality Systems}},
  booktitle =	{4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems (CERTS 2019)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:13},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-119-1},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{73},
  editor =	{Asplund, Mikael and Paulitsch, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.CERTS.2019.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108933},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.CERTS.2019.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Instrumentation, Mixed-criticality, Real-Time, System Calls, Host Intrusion Detection Systems}
}
Document
Vulnerability Analysis and Mitigation of Directed Timing Inference Based Attacks on Time-Triggered Systems

Authors: Kristin Krüger, Marcus Völp, and Gerhard Fohler

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 106, 30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018)


Abstract
Much effort has been put into improving the predictability of real-time systems, especially in safety-critical environments, which provides designers with a rich set of methods and tools to attest safety in situations with no or a limited number of accidental faults. However, with increasing connectivity of real-time systems and a wide availability of increasingly sophisticated exploits, security and, in particular, the consequences of predictability on security become concerns of equal importance. Time-triggered scheduling with offline constructed tables provides determinism and simplifies timing inference, however, at the same time, time-triggered scheduling creates vulnerabilities by allowing attackers to target their attacks to specific, deterministically scheduled and possibly safety-critical tasks. In this paper, we analyze the severity of these vulnerabilities by assuming successful compromise of a subset of the tasks running in a real-time system and by investigating the attack potential that attackers gain from them. Moreover, we discuss two ways to mitigate direct attacks: slot-level online randomization of schedules, and offline schedule-diversification. We evaluate these mitigation strategies with a real-world case study to show their practicability for mitigating not only accidentally malicious behavior, but also malicious behavior triggered by attackers on purpose.

Cite as

Kristin Krüger, Marcus Völp, and Gerhard Fohler. Vulnerability Analysis and Mitigation of Directed Timing Inference Based Attacks on Time-Triggered Systems. In 30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 106, pp. 22:1-22:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{kruger_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.22,
  author =	{Kr\"{u}ger, Kristin and V\"{o}lp, Marcus and Fohler, Gerhard},
  title =	{{Vulnerability Analysis and Mitigation of Directed Timing Inference Based Attacks on Time-Triggered Systems}},
  booktitle =	{30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-075-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{106},
  editor =	{Altmeyer, Sebastian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-89811},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: real-time systems, time-triggered systems, security, vulnerability}
}
Document
Contention-Aware Dynamic Memory Bandwidth Isolation with Predictability in COTS Multicores: An Avionics Case Study

Authors: Ankit Agrawal, Gerhard Fohler, Johannes Freitag, Jan Nowotsch, Sascha Uhrig, and Michael Paulitsch

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 76, 29th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2017)


Abstract
Airbus is investigating COTS multicore platforms for safety-critical avionics applications, pursuing helicopter-style autonomous and electric aircraft. These aircraft need to be ultra-lightweight for future mobility in the urban city landscape. As a step towards certification, Airbus identified the need for new methods that preserve the ARINC 653 single core schedule of a Helicopter Terrain Awareness and Warning System (HTAWS) application while scheduling additional safety-critical partitions on the other cores. As some partitions in the HTAWS application are memory-intensive, static memory bandwidth throttling may lead to slow down of such partitions or provide only little remaining bandwidth to the other cores. Thus, there is a need for dynamic memory bandwidth isolation. This poses new challenges for scheduling, as execution times and scheduling become interdependent: scheduling requires execution times as input, which depends on memory latencies and contention from memory accesses of other cores - which are determined by scheduling. Furthermore, execution times depend on memory access patterns. In this paper, we propose a method to solve this problem for slot-based time-triggered systems without requiring application source-code modifications using a number of dynamic memory bandwidth levels. It is NoC and DRAM controller contention-aware and based on the existing interference-sensitive WCET computation and the memory bandwidth throttling mechanism. It constructs schedule tables by assigning partitions and dynamic memory bandwidth to each slot on each core, considering worst case memory access patterns. Then at runtime, two servers - for processing time and memory bandwidth - run on each core, jointly controlling the contention between the cores and the amount of memory accesses per slot. As a proof-of-concept, we use a constraint solver to construct tables. Experiments on the P4080 COTS multicore platform, using a research OS from Airbus and EEMBC benchmarks, demonstrate that our proposed method enables preserving existing schedules on a core while scheduling additional safety-critical partitions on other cores, and meets dynamic memory bandwidth isolation requirements.

Cite as

Ankit Agrawal, Gerhard Fohler, Johannes Freitag, Jan Nowotsch, Sascha Uhrig, and Michael Paulitsch. Contention-Aware Dynamic Memory Bandwidth Isolation with Predictability in COTS Multicores: An Avionics Case Study. In 29th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 76, pp. 2:1-2:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2017.2,
  author =	{Agrawal, Ankit and Fohler, Gerhard and Freitag, Johannes and Nowotsch, Jan and Uhrig, Sascha and Paulitsch, Michael},
  title =	{{Contention-Aware Dynamic Memory Bandwidth Isolation with Predictability in COTS Multicores: An Avionics Case Study}},
  booktitle =	{29th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2017)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-037-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{76},
  editor =	{Bertogna, Marko},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2017.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-71740},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2017.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Dynamic memory bandwidth isolation, Safety-critical avionics, COTS multicores}
}
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