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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

Range Avoidance (Avoid) is a total search problem where, given a Boolean circuit 𝖢: {0,1}ⁿ → {0,1}^m, m > n, the task is to find a y ∈ {0,1}^m outside the range of 𝖢. For an integer k ≥ 2, NC⁰_k-Avoid is a special case of Avoid where each output bit of 𝖢 depends on at most k input bits. While there is a very natural randomized algorithm for Avoid, a deterministic algorithm for the problem would have many interesting consequences. Ren, Santhanam, and Wang (FOCS 2022) and Guruswami, Lyu, and Wang (RANDOM 2022) proved that explicit constructions of functions of high formula complexity, rigid matrices, and optimal linear codes, reduce to NC⁰₄-Avoid, thus establishing conditional hardness of the NC⁰₄-Avoid problem. On the other hand, NC⁰₂-Avoid admits polynomial-time algorithms, leaving the question about the complexity of NC⁰₃-Avoid open.
We give the first reduction of an explicit construction question to NC⁰₃-Avoid. Specifically, we prove that a polynomial-time algorithm (with an NP oracle) for NC⁰₃-Avoid for the case of m = n+n^{2/3} would imply an explicit construction of a rigid matrix, and, thus, a super-linear lower bound on the size of log-depth circuits.
We also give deterministic polynomial-time algorithms for all NC⁰_k-Avoid problems for m ≥ n^{k-1}/log(n). Prior work required an NP oracle, and required larger stretch, m ≥ n^{k-1}.

Karthik Gajulapalli, Alexander Golovnev, Satyajeet Nagargoje, and Sidhant Saraogi. Range Avoidance for Constant Depth Circuits: Hardness and Algorithms. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 65:1-65:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gajulapalli_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.65, author = {Gajulapalli, Karthik and Golovnev, Alexander and Nagargoje, Satyajeet and Saraogi, Sidhant}, title = {{Range Avoidance for Constant Depth Circuits: Hardness and Algorithms}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {65:1--65:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.65}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188901}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.65}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean function analysis, Explicit Constructions, Low-depth Circuits, Range Avoidance, Matrix Rigidity, Circuit Lower Bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)

We address the following dynamic version of the school choice question: a city, named City, admits students in two temporally-separated rounds, denoted R₁ and R₂. In round R₁, the capacity of each school is fixed and mechanism M₁ finds a student optimal stable matching. In round R₂, certain parameters change, e.g., new students move into the City or the City is happy to allocate extra seats to specific schools. We study a number of Settings of this kind and give polynomial time algorithms for obtaining a stable matching for the new situations.
It is well established that switching the school of a student midway, unsynchronized with her classmates, can cause traumatic effects. This fact guides us to two types of results: the first simply disallows any re-allocations in round R₂, and the second asks for a stable matching that minimizes the number of re-allocations. For the latter, we prove that the stable matchings which minimize the number of re-allocations form a sublattice of the lattice of stable matchings. Observations about incentive compatibility are woven into these results. We also give a third type of results, namely proofs of NP-hardness for a mechanism for round R₂ under certain settings.

Karthik Gajulapalli, James A. Liu, Tung Mai, and Vijay V. Vazirani. Stability-Preserving, Time-Efficient Mechanisms for School Choice in Two Rounds. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 21:1-21:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{gajulapalli_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.21, author = {Gajulapalli, Karthik and Liu, James A. and Mai, Tung and Vazirani, Vijay V.}, title = {{Stability-Preserving, Time-Efficient Mechanisms for School Choice in Two Rounds}}, booktitle = {40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)}, pages = {21:1--21:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-174-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {182}, editor = {Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132626}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.21}, annote = {Keywords: stable matching, mechanism design, NP-Hardness} }

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