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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

With input sizes becoming massive, coresets - small yet representative summary of the input - are relevant more than ever. A weighted set C_w that is a subset of the input is an ε-coreset if the cost of any feasible solution S with respect to C_w is within [1±ε] of the cost of S with respect to the original input. We give a very general technique to compute coresets in the fully-dynamic setting where input points can be added or deleted. Given a static (i.e., not dynamic) ε-coreset-construction algorithm that runs in time t(n, ε, λ) and computes a coreset of size s(n, ε, λ), where n is the number of input points and 1-λ is the success probability, we give a fully-dynamic algorithm that computes an ε-coreset with worst-case update time O((log n) ⋅ t(s(n, ε/log n, λ/n), ε/log n, λ/n)) (this bound is stated informally), where the success probability is 1-λ. Our technique is a fully-dynamic analog of the merge-and-reduce technique, which is due to Har-Peled and Mazumdar [Har-Peled and Mazumdar, 2004] and is based on a technique of Bentley and Saxe [Jon Louis Bentley and James B. Saxe, 1980], that applies to the insertion-only setting where points can only be added. Although, our space usage is O(n), our technique works in the presence of an adaptive adversary, and we show that Ω(n) space is required when adversary is adaptive.
As a concrete implication of our technique, using the result of Braverman et al. [{Braverman} et al., 2016], we get fully-dynamic ε-coreset-construction algorithms for k-median and k-means with worst-case update time O(ε^{-2} k² log⁵ n log³ k) and coreset size O(ε^{-2} k log n log² k) ignoring log log n and log(1/ε) factors and assuming that ε = Ω(1/poly(n)) and λ = Ω(1/poly(n)) (which are very weak assumptions made only to make these bounds easy to parse). This results in the first fully-dynamic constant-approximation algorithms for k-median and k-means with update times O(poly(k, log n, ε^{-1})). Specifically, the dependence on k is only quadratic, and the bounds are worst-case. The best previous bound for both problems was amortized O(nlog n) by Cohen-Addad et al. [Cohen-Addad et al., 2019] via randomized O(1)-coresets in O(n) space.
We also show that under the OMv conjecture [Monika Henzinger et al., 2015], a fully-dynamic (4 - δ)-approximation algorithm for k-means must either have an amortized update time of Ω(k^{1-γ}) or amortized query time of Ω(k^{2 - γ}), where γ > 0 is a constant.

Monika Henzinger and Sagar Kale. Fully-Dynamic Coresets. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 57:1-57:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{henzinger_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.57, author = {Henzinger, Monika and Kale, Sagar}, title = {{Fully-Dynamic Coresets}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {57:1--57:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.57}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129230}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.57}, annote = {Keywords: Clustering, Coresets, Dynamic Algorithms} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

In this paper, we study streaming and online algorithms in the context of randomness in the input. For several problems, a random order of the input sequence - as opposed to the worst-case order - appears to be a necessary evil in order to prove satisfying guarantees. However, algorithmic techniques that work under this assumption tend to be vulnerable to even small changes in the distribution. For this reason, we propose a new adversarial injections model, in which the input is ordered randomly, but an adversary may inject misleading elements at arbitrary positions. We believe that studying algorithms under this much weaker assumption can lead to new insights and, in particular, more robust algorithms. We investigate two classical combinatorial-optimization problems in this model: Maximum matching and cardinality constrained monotone submodular function maximization. Our main technical contribution is a novel streaming algorithm for the latter that computes a 0.55-approximation. While the algorithm itself is clean and simple, an involved analysis shows that it emulates a subdivision of the input stream which can be used to greatly limit the power of the adversary.

Paritosh Garg, Sagar Kale, Lars Rohwedder, and Ola Svensson. Robust Algorithms Under Adversarial Injections. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 56:1-56:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{garg_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.56, author = {Garg, Paritosh and Kale, Sagar and Rohwedder, Lars and Svensson, Ola}, title = {{Robust Algorithms Under Adversarial Injections}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {56:1--56:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124632}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.56}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming algorithm, adversary, submodular maximization, matching} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

In the matroid center problem, which generalizes the k-center problem, we need to pick a set of centers that is an independent set of a matroid with rank r. We study this problem in streaming, where elements of the ground set arrive in the stream. We first show that any randomized one-pass streaming algorithm that computes a better than Delta-approximation for partition-matroid center must use Omega(r^2) bits of space, where Delta is the aspect ratio of the metric and can be arbitrarily large. This shows a quadratic separation between matroid center and k-center, for which the Doubling algorithm [Charikar et al., 1997] gives an 8-approximation using O(k)-space and one pass. To complement this, we give a one-pass algorithm for matroid center that stores at most O(r^2 log(1/epsilon)/epsilon) points (viz., stream summary) among which a (7+epsilon)-approximate solution exists, which can be found by brute force, or a (17+epsilon)-approximation can be found with an efficient algorithm. If we are allowed a second pass, we can compute a (3+epsilon)-approximation efficiently.
We also consider the problem of matroid center with z outliers and give a one-pass algorithm that outputs a set of O((r^2+rz)log(1/epsilon)/epsilon) points that contains a (15+epsilon)-approximate solution. Our techniques extend to knapsack center and knapsack center with z outliers in a straightforward way, and we get algorithms that use space linear in the size of a largest feasible set (as opposed to quadratic space for matroid center).

Sagar Kale. Small Space Stream Summary for Matroid Center. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 20:1-20:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{kale:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.20, author = {Kale, Sagar}, title = {{Small Space Stream Summary for Matroid Center}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {20:1--20:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112359}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.20}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming Algorithms, Matroids, Clustering} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

We consider the maximum matching problem in the semi-streaming model formalized by Feigenbaum, Kannan, McGregor, Suri, and Zhang that is inspired by giant graphs of today. As our main result, we give a two-pass (1/2 + 1/16)-approximation algorithm for triangle-free graphs and a two-pass (1/2 + 1/32)-approximation algorithm for general graphs; these improve the approximation ratios of 1/2 + 1/52 for bipartite graphs and 1/2 + 1/140 for general graphs by Konrad, Magniez, and Mathieu. In three passes, we achieve approximation ratios of 1/2 + 1/10 for triangle-free graphs and 1/2 + 1/19.753 for general graphs. We also give a multi-pass algorithm where we bound the number of passes precisely - we give a (2/3 - epsilon)-approximation algorithm that uses 2/(3 epsilon) passes for triangle-free graphs and 4/(3 epsilon) passes for general graphs. Our algorithms are simple and combinatorial, use O(n log(n)) space, and have O(1) update time per edge.
For general graphs, our multi-pass algorithm improves the best known deterministic algorithms in terms of the number of passes:
* Ahn and Guha give a (2/3 - epsilon)-approximation algorithm that uses O(log(1/epsilon)/epsilon^2) passes, whereas our (2/3 - epsilon)-approximation algorithm uses 4/(epsilon) passes;
* they also give a (1 - epsilon)-approximation algorithm that uses O(log(n) poly(1/epsilon)) passes, where n is the number of vertices of the input graph; although our algorithm is (2/3 - epsilon)-approximation, our number of passes do not depend on n.
Earlier multi-pass algorithms either have a large constant inside big-O notation for the number of passes or the constant cannot be determined due to the involved analysis, so our multi-pass algorithm should use much fewer passes for approximation ratios bounded slightly below 2/3.

Sagar Kale and Sumedh Tirodkar. Maximum Matching in Two, Three, and a Few More Passes Over Graph Streams. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 15:1-15:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{kale_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.15, author = {Kale, Sagar and Tirodkar, Sumedh}, title = {{Maximum Matching in Two, Three, and a Few More Passes Over Graph Streams}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {15:1--15:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75645}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.15}, annote = {Keywords: Semi Streaming, Maximum Matching} }

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Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

Graphs and games on graphs are fundamental models for the analysis of reactive systems, in particular, for model-checking and the synthesis of reactive systems. The class of ω-regular languages provides a robust specification formalism for the desired properties of reactive systems. In the classical infinitary formulation of the liveness part of an ω-regular specification, a "good" event must happen eventually without any bound between the good events. A stronger notion of liveness is bounded liveness, which requires that good events happen within d transitions. Given a graph or a game graph with n vertices, m edges, and a bounded liveness objective, the previous best-known algorithmic bounds are as follows: (i) O(dm) for graphs, which in the worst-case is O(n³); and (ii) O(n² d²) for games on graphs. Our main contributions improve these long-standing algorithmic bounds. For graphs we present: (i) a randomized algorithm with one-sided error with running time O(n^{2.5} log n) for the bounded liveness objectives; and (ii) a deterministic linear-time algorithm for the complement of bounded liveness objectives. For games on graphs, we present an O(n² d) time algorithm for the bounded liveness objectives.

Krishnendu Chatterjee, Monika Henzinger, Sagar Sudhir Kale, and Alexander Svozil. Faster Algorithms for Bounded Liveness in Graphs and Game Graphs. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 124:1-124:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chatterjee_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.124, author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Monika and Kale, Sagar Sudhir and Svozil, Alexander}, title = {{Faster Algorithms for Bounded Liveness in Graphs and Game Graphs}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {124:1--124:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.124}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141930}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.124}, annote = {Keywords: Graphs, Game Graphs, B\"{u}chi} }

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