Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 226, 11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022)

Various forms of sorting problems have been studied over the years. Recently, two kinds of sorting puzzle apps are popularized. In these puzzles, we are given a set of bins filled with colored units, balls or water, and some empty bins. These puzzles allow us to move colored units from a bin to another when the colors involved match in some way or the target bin is empty. The goal of these puzzles is to sort all the color units in order. We investigate computational complexities of these puzzles. We first show that these two puzzles are essentially the same from the viewpoint of solvability. That is, an instance is sortable by ball-moves if and only if it is sortable by water-moves. We also show that every yes-instance has a solution of polynomial length, which implies that these puzzles belong to NP . We then show that these puzzles are NP-complete. For some special cases, we give polynomial-time algorithms. We finally consider the number of empty bins sufficient for making all instances solvable and give non-trivial upper and lower bounds in terms of the number of filled bins and the capacity of bins.

Takehiro Ito, Jun Kawahara, Shin-ichi Minato, Yota Otachi, Toshiki Saitoh, Akira Suzuki, Ryuhei Uehara, Takeaki Uno, Katsuhisa Yamanaka, and Ryo Yoshinaka. Sorting Balls and Water: Equivalence and Computational Complexity. In 11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 226, pp. 16:1-16:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ito_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2022.16, author = {Ito, Takehiro and Kawahara, Jun and Minato, Shin-ichi and Otachi, Yota and Saitoh, Toshiki and Suzuki, Akira and Uehara, Ryuhei and Uno, Takeaki and Yamanaka, Katsuhisa and Yoshinaka, Ryo}, title = {{Sorting Balls and Water: Equivalence and Computational Complexity}}, booktitle = {11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022)}, pages = {16:1--16:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-232-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {226}, editor = {Fraigniaud, Pierre and Uno, Yushi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2022.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-159867}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2022.16}, annote = {Keywords: Ball sort puzzle, recreational mathematics, sorting pairs in bins, water sort puzzle} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 160, 18th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2020)

Subgraph enumeration is a fundamental task in computer science. Since the number of subgraphs can be large, some enumeration algorithms exploit compressed representations for efficiency. One such representation is the Zero-suppressed Binary Decision Diagram (ZDD). ZDDs can represent the set of subgraphs compactly and support several poly-time queries, such as counting and random sampling. Researchers have proposed efficient algorithms to construct ZDDs representing the set of subgraphs under several constraints, which yield fruitful results in many applications. Recently, Zero-suppressed Sentential Decision Diagrams (ZSDDs) have been proposed as variants of ZDDs. ZSDDs can be smaller than ZDDs when representing the same set of subgraphs. However, efficient algorithms to construct ZSDDs are known only for specific types of subgraphs: matchings and paths.
We propose a novel framework to construct ZSDDs representing sets of subgraphs under given constraints. Using our framework, we can construct ZSDDs representing several sets of subgraphs such as matchings, paths, cycles, and spanning trees. We show the bound of sizes of constructed ZSDDs by the branch-width of the input graph, which is smaller than that of ZDDs by the path-width. Experiments show that our methods can construct ZSDDs faster than ZDDs and that the constructed ZSDDs are smaller than ZDDs when representing the same set of subgraphs.

Yu Nakahata, Masaaki Nishino, Jun Kawahara, and Shin-ichi Minato. Enumerating All Subgraphs Under Given Constraints Using Zero-Suppressed Sentential Decision Diagrams. In 18th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 160, pp. 9:1-9:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{nakahata_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2020.9, author = {Nakahata, Yu and Nishino, Masaaki and Kawahara, Jun and Minato, Shin-ichi}, title = {{Enumerating All Subgraphs Under Given Constraints Using Zero-Suppressed Sentential Decision Diagrams}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2020)}, pages = {9:1--9:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-148-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {160}, editor = {Faro, Simone and Cantone, Domenico}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2020.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120831}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2020.9}, annote = {Keywords: Subgraph, Enumeration, Decision Diagram, Zero-suppressed Sentential Decision Diagram (ZSDD), Top-down construction algorithm} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 103, 17th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2018)

Partitioning a graph into balanced components is important for several applications. For multi-objective problems, it is useful not only to find one solution but also to enumerate all the solutions with good values of objectives. However, there are a vast number of graph partitions in a graph, and thus it is difficult to enumerate desired graph partitions efficiently. In this paper, an algorithm to enumerate all the graph partitions such that all the weights of the connected components are at least a specified value is proposed. To deal with a large search space, we use zero-suppressed binary decision diagrams (ZDDs) to represent sets of graph partitions and we design a new algorithm based on frontier-based search, which is a framework to directly construct a ZDD. Our algorithm utilizes not only ZDDs but also ternary decision diagrams (TDDs) and realizes an operation which seems difficult to be designed only by ZDDs. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm runs up to tens of times faster than an existing state-of-the-art algorithm.

Yu Nakahata, Jun Kawahara, and Shoji Kasahara. Enumerating Graph Partitions Without Too Small Connected Components Using Zero-suppressed Binary and Ternary Decision Diagrams. In 17th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 103, pp. 21:1-21:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{nakahata_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2018.21, author = {Nakahata, Yu and Kawahara, Jun and Kasahara, Shoji}, title = {{Enumerating Graph Partitions Without Too Small Connected Components Using Zero-suppressed Binary and Ternary Decision Diagrams}}, booktitle = {17th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2018)}, pages = {21:1--21:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-070-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {103}, editor = {D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2018.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-89560}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2018.21}, annote = {Keywords: Graph algorithm, Graph partitioning, Decision diagram, Frontier-based search, Enumeration problem} }

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