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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 217, 25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021)

We consider the fundamental problem of assigning distinct labels to agents in the probabilistic model of population protocols. Our protocols operate under the assumption that the size n of the population is embedded in the transition function. Their efficiency is expressed in terms of the number of states utilized by agents, the size of the range from which the labels are drawn, and the expected number of interactions required by our solutions. Our primary goal is to provide efficient protocols for this fundamental problem complemented with tight lower bounds in all the three aspects. W.h.p. (with high probability), our labeling protocols are silent, i.e., eventually each agent reaches its final state and remains in it forever, and they are safe, i.e., never update the label assigned to any single agent. We first present a silent w.h.p. and safe labeling protocol that draws labels from the range [1,2n]. Both the number of interactions required and the number of states used by the protocol are asymptotically optimal, i.e., O(n log n) w.h.p. and O(n), respectively. Next, we present a generalization of the protocol, where the range of assigned labels is [1,(1+ε) n]. The generalized protocol requires O(n log n / ε) interactions in order to complete the assignment of distinct labels from [1,(1+ε) n] to the n agents, w.h.p. It is also silent w.h.p. and safe, and uses (2+ε)n+O(n^c) states, for any positive c < 1. On the other hand, we consider the so-called pool labeling protocols that include our fast protocols. We show that the expected number of interactions required by any pool protocol is ≥ (n²)/(r+1), when the labels range is 1,… , n+r < 2n. Furthermore, we provide a protocol which uses only n+5√ n +O(n^c) states, for any c < 1, and draws labels from the range 1,… ,n. The expected number of interactions required by the protocol is O(n³). Once a unique leader is elected it produces a valid labeling and it is silent and safe. On the other hand, we show that (even if a unique leader is given in advance) any silent protocol that produces a valid labeling and is safe with probability > 1-(1/n), uses ≥ n+√{(n-1)/2}-1 states. Hence, our protocol is almost state-optimal. We also present a generalization of the protocol to include a trade-off between the number of states and the expected number of interactions. Finally, we show that for any silent and safe labeling protocol utilizing n+t < 2n states, the expected number of interactions required to achieve a valid labeling is ≥ (n²)/(t+1).

Leszek Gąsieniec, Jesper Jansson, Christos Levcopoulos, and Andrzej Lingas. Efficient Assignment of Identities in Anonymous Populations. In 25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 217, pp. 12:1-12:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{gasieniec_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.12, author = {G\k{a}sieniec, Leszek and Jansson, Jesper and Levcopoulos, Christos and Lingas, Andrzej}, title = {{Efficient Assignment of Identities in Anonymous Populations}}, booktitle = {25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021)}, pages = {12:1--12:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-219-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {217}, editor = {Bramas, Quentin and Gramoli, Vincent and Milani, Alessia}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-157871}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.12}, annote = {Keywords: population protocol, state efficiency, time efficiency, one-way epidemics, leader election, agent identities} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 149, 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)

Online routing in a planar embedded graph is central to a number of fields and has been studied extensively in the literature. For most planar graphs no O(1)-competitive online routing algorithm exists. A notable exception is the Delaunay triangulation for which Bose and Morin [Bose and Morin, 2004] showed that there exists an online routing algorithm that is O(1)-competitive. However, a Delaunay triangulation can have Omega(n) vertex degree and a total weight that is a linear factor greater than the weight of a minimum spanning tree.
We show a simple construction, given a set V of n points in the Euclidean plane, of a planar geometric graph on V that has small weight (within a constant factor of the weight of a minimum spanning tree on V), constant degree, and that admits a local routing strategy that is O(1)-competitive. Moreover, the technique used to bound the weight works generally for any planar geometric graph whilst preserving the admission of an O(1)-competitive routing strategy.

Vikrant Ashvinkumar, Joachim Gudmundsson, Christos Levcopoulos, Bengt J. Nilsson, and André van Renssen. Local Routing in Sparse and Lightweight Geometric Graphs. In 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 149, pp. 30:1-30:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{ashvinkumar_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.30, author = {Ashvinkumar, Vikrant and Gudmundsson, Joachim and Levcopoulos, Christos and Nilsson, Bengt J. and van Renssen, Andr\'{e}}, title = {{Local Routing in Sparse and Lightweight Geometric Graphs}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)}, pages = {30:1--30:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-130-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {149}, editor = {Lu, Pinyan and Zhang, Guochuan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115269}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.30}, annote = {Keywords: Computational geometry, Spanners, Routing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 92, 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)

Let C be the unit circle in R^2. We can view C as a plane graph whose vertices are all the points on C, and the distance between any two points on C is the length of the smaller arc between them. We consider a graph augmentation problem on C, where we want to place k >= 1 shortcuts on C such that the diameter of the resulting graph is minimized.
We analyze for each k with 1 <= k <= 7 what the optimal set of shortcuts is. Interestingly, the minimum diameter one can obtain is not a strictly decreasing function of k. For example, with seven shortcuts one cannot obtain a smaller diameter than with six shortcuts. Finally, we prove that the optimal diameter is 2 + Theta(1/k^(2/3)) for any k.

Sang Won Bae, Mark de Berg, Otfried Cheong, Joachim Gudmundsson, and Christos Levcopoulos. Shortcuts for the Circle. In 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 92, pp. 9:1-9:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bae_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.9, author = {Bae, Sang Won and de Berg, Mark and Cheong, Otfried and Gudmundsson, Joachim and Levcopoulos, Christos}, title = {{Shortcuts for the Circle}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)}, pages = {9:1--9:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-054-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {92}, editor = {Okamoto, Yoshio and Tokuyama, Takeshi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-82133}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.9}, annote = {Keywords: Computational geometry, graph augmentation problem, circle, shortcut, diameter} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)

Suppose that a circular fire spreads in the plane at unit speed. A fire fighter can build a barrier at speed v > 1. How large must v be to ensure that the fire can be contained, and how should the fire fighter proceed? We provide two results. First, we analyze the natural strategy where the fighter keeps building a barrier along the frontier of the expanding fire. We prove that this approach contains the fire if v > v_c = 2.6144... holds. Second, we show that any "spiralling" strategy must have speed v > 1.618, the golden ratio, in order to succeed.

Rolf Klein, Elmar Langetepe, and Christos Levcopoulos. A Fire Fighter’s Problem. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 768-780, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{klein_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.768, author = {Klein, Rolf and Langetepe, Elmar and Levcopoulos, Christos}, title = {{A Fire Fighter’s Problem}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)}, pages = {768--780}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-83-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {34}, editor = {Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.768}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-51044}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.768}, annote = {Keywords: Motion Planning, Dynamic Environments, Spiralling strategies, Lower and upper bounds} }

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