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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

Recently, Dvir, Golovnev, and Weinstein have shown that sufficiently strong lower bounds for linear data structures would imply new bounds for rigid matrices. However, their result utilizes an algorithm that requires an NP oracle, and hence, the rigid matrices are not explicit. In this work, we derive an equivalence between rigidity and the systematic linear model of data structures. For the n-dimensional inner product problem with m queries, we prove that lower bounds on the query time imply rigidity lower bounds for the query set itself. In particular, an explicit lower bound of ω(n/r log m) for r redundant storage bits would yield better rigidity parameters than the best bounds due to Alon, Panigrahy, and Yekhanin. We also prove a converse result, showing that rigid matrices directly correspond to hard query sets for the systematic linear model. As an application, we prove that the set of vectors obtained from rank one binary matrices is rigid with parameters matching the known results for explicit sets. This implies that the vector-matrix-vector problem requires query time Ω(n^(3/2)/r) for redundancy r ≥ √n in the systematic linear model, improving a result of Chakraborty, Kamma, and Larsen. Finally, we prove a cell probe lower bound for the vector-matrix-vector problem in the high error regime, improving a result of Chattopadhyay, Koucký, Loff, and Mukhopadhyay.

Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy and Cyrus Rashtchian. Equivalence of Systematic Linear Data Structures and Matrix Rigidity. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 35:1-35:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{natarajanramamoorthy_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.35, author = {Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Sivaramakrishnan and Rashtchian, Cyrus}, title = {{Equivalence of Systematic Linear Data Structures and Matrix Rigidity}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {35:1--35:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117204}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.35}, annote = {Keywords: matrix rigidity, systematic linear data structures, cell probe model, communication complexity} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

There are various notions of balancing set families that appear in combinatorics and computer science. For example, a family of proper non-empty subsets S_1,...,S_k subset [n] is balancing if for every subset X subset {1,2,...,n} of size n/2, there is an i in [k] so that |S_i cap X| = |S_i|/2. We extend and simplify the framework developed by Hegedűs for proving lower bounds on the size of balancing set families. We prove that if n=2p for a prime p, then k >= p. For arbitrary values of n, we show that k >= n/2 - o(n).
We then exploit the connection between balancing families and depth-2 threshold circuits. This connection helps resolve a question raised by Kulikov and Podolskii on the fan-in of depth-2 majority circuits computing the majority function on n bits. We show that any depth-2 threshold circuit that computes the majority on n bits has at least one gate with fan-in at least n/2 - o(n). We also prove a sharp lower bound on the fan-in of depth-2 threshold circuits computing a specific weighted threshold function.

Pavel Hrubeš, Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Anup Rao, and Amir Yehudayoff. Lower Bounds on Balancing Sets and Depth-2 Threshold Circuits. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 72:1-72:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{hrubes_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.72, author = {Hrube\v{s}, Pavel and Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Sivaramakrishnan and Rao, Anup and Yehudayoff, Amir}, title = {{Lower Bounds on Balancing Sets and Depth-2 Threshold Circuits}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {72:1--72:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.72}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106487}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.72}, annote = {Keywords: Balancing sets, depth-2 threshold circuits, polynomials, majority, weighted thresholds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 102, 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)

We prove new cell-probe lower bounds for dynamic data structures that maintain a subset of {1,2,...,n}, and compute various statistics of the set. The data structure is said to handle insertions non-adaptively if the locations of memory accessed depend only on the element being inserted, and not on the contents of the memory. For any such data structure that can compute the median of the set, we prove that: t_{med} >= Omega(n^{1/(t_{ins}+1)}/(w^2 * t_{ins}^2)), where t_{ins} is the number of memory locations accessed during insertions, t_{med} is the number of memory locations accessed to compute the median, and w is the number of bits stored in each memory location. When the data structure is able to perform deletions non-adaptively and compute the minimum non-adaptively, we prove t_{min} + t_{del} >= Omega(log n /(log w + log log n)), where t_{min} is the number of locations accessed to compute the minimum, and t_{del} is the number of locations accessed to perform deletions. For the predecessor search problem, where the data structure is required to compute the predecessor of any element in the set, we prove that if computing the predecessors can be done non-adaptively, then either t_{pred} >= Omega(log n/(log log n + log w)), or t_{ins} >= Omega(n^{1/(2(t_{pred}+1))}), where t_{pred} is the number of locations accessed to compute predecessors.
These bounds are nearly matched by Binary Search Trees in some range of parameters. Our results follow from using the Sunflower Lemma of Erdös and Rado [Paul Erdös and Richard Rado, 1960] together with several kinds of encoding arguments.

Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy and Anup Rao. Lower Bounds on Non-Adaptive Data Structures Maintaining Sets of Numbers, from Sunflowers. In 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 102, pp. 27:1-27:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{natarajanramamoorthy_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2018.27, author = {Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Sivaramakrishnan and Rao, Anup}, title = {{Lower Bounds on Non-Adaptive Data Structures Maintaining Sets of Numbers, from Sunflowers}}, booktitle = {33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)}, pages = {27:1--27:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-069-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {102}, editor = {Servedio, Rocco A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88625}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.27}, annote = {Keywords: Non-adaptive data structures, Sunflower lemma} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

We study the problem of estimating the number of edges in a graph with access to only an independent set oracle. Independent set queries draw motivation from group testing and have applications to the complexity of decision versus counting problems. We give two algorithms to estimate the number of edges in an n-vertex graph: one that uses only polylog(n) bipartite independent set queries, and another one that uses n^{2/3} polylog(n) independent set queries.

Paul Beame, Sariel Har-Peled, Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Cyrus Rashtchian, and Makrand Sinha. Edge Estimation with Independent Set Oracles. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 38:1-38:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{beame_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.38, author = {Beame, Paul and Har-Peled, Sariel and Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Sivaramakrishnan and Rashtchian, Cyrus and Sinha, Makrand}, title = {{Edge Estimation with Independent Set Oracles}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {38:1--38:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83552}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.38}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate Counting, Independent Set Queries, Sparsification, Importance Sampling} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 33, 30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015)

We study the relationship between communication and information in 2-party communication protocols when the information is asymmetric. If I^A denotes the number of bits of information revealed by the first party, I^B denotes the information revealed by the second party, and C is the number of bits of communication in the protocol, we show that i) one can simulate the protocol using order I^A + (C^3 * I^B)^(1/4) * log(C) + (C * I^B)^(1/2) * log(C) bits of communication, ii) one can simulate the protocol using order I^A * 2^(O(I^B)) bits of communication The first result gives the best known bound on the complexity of a simulation when I^A >> I^B,C^(3/4). The second gives the best known bound when I^B << log C. In addition we show that if a function is computed by a protocol with asymmetric information complexity, then the inputs must have a large, nearly monochromatic rectangle of the right dimensions, a fact that is useful for proving lower bounds on lopsided communication problems.

Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy and Anup Rao. How to Compress Asymmetric Communication. In 30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 33, pp. 102-123, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{natarajanramamoorthy_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2015.102, author = {Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Sivaramakrishnan and Rao, Anup}, title = {{How to Compress Asymmetric Communication}}, booktitle = {30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015)}, pages = {102--123}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-81-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {33}, editor = {Zuckerman, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2015.102}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-50679}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2015.102}, annote = {Keywords: Communication Complexity, Interactive Compression, Information Complexity} }

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