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Documents authored by Nicolaou, Nicolas


Document
Fragmented ARES: Dynamic Storage for Large Objects

Authors: Chryssis Georgiou, Nicolas Nicolaou, and Andria Trigeorgi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)


Abstract
Data availability is one of the most important features in distributed storage systems, made possible by data replication. Nowadays data are generated rapidly and developing efficient, scalable and reliable storage systems has become one of the major challenges for high performance computing. In this work, we develop and prove correct a dynamic, robust and strongly consistent distributed shared memory suitable for handling large objects (such as files) and utilizing erasure coding. We do so by integrating an Adaptive, Reconfigurable, Atomic memory framework, called Ares, with the CoBFS framework, which relies on a block fragmentation technique to handle large objects. With the addition of Ares, we also enable the use of an erasure-coded algorithm to further split the data and to potentially improve storage efficiency at the replica servers and operation latency. Our development is complemented with an in-depth experimental evaluation on the Emulab and AWS EC2 testbeds, illustrating the benefits of our approach, as well as interesting tradeoffs.

Cite as

Chryssis Georgiou, Nicolas Nicolaou, and Andria Trigeorgi. Fragmented ARES: Dynamic Storage for Large Objects. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 25:1-25:24, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{georgiou_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.25,
  author =	{Georgiou, Chryssis and Nicolaou, Nicolas and Trigeorgi, Andria},
  title =	{{Fragmented ARES: Dynamic Storage for Large Objects}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-255-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{246},
  editor =	{Scheideler, Christian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172161},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed storage, Large objects, Strong consistency, High access concurrency, Erasure code, Reconfiguration}
}
Document
Byzantine-Tolerant Distributed Grow-Only Sets: Specification and Applications

Authors: Vicent Cholvi, Antonio Fernández Anta, Chryssis Georgiou, Nicolas Nicolaou, Michel Raynal, and Antonio Russo

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 92, 4th International Symposium on Foundations and Applications of Blockchain 2021 (FAB 2021)


Abstract
In order to formalize Distributed Ledger Technologies and their interconnections, a recent line of research work has formulated the notion of Distributed Ledger Object (DLO), which is a concurrent object that maintains a totally ordered sequence of records, abstracting blockchains and distributed ledgers. Through DLO, the Atomic Appends problem, intended as the need of a primitive able to append multiple records to distinct ledgers in an atomic way, is studied as a basic interconnection problem among ledgers. In this work, we propose the Distributed Grow-only Set object (DSO), which instead of maintaining a sequence of records, as in a DLO, maintains a set of records in an immutable way: only Add and Get operations are provided. This object is inspired by the Grow-only Set (G-Set) data type which is part of the Conflict-free Replicated Data Types. We formally specify the object and we provide a consensus-free Byzantine-tolerant implementation that guarantees eventual consistency. We then use our Byzantine-tolerant DSO (BDSO) implementation to provide consensus-free algorithmic solutions to the Atomic Appends and Atomic Adds (the analogous problem of atomic appends applied on G-Sets) problems, as well as to construct consensus-free Single-Writer BDLOs. We believe that the BDSO has applications beyond the above-mentioned problems.

Cite as

Vicent Cholvi, Antonio Fernández Anta, Chryssis Georgiou, Nicolas Nicolaou, Michel Raynal, and Antonio Russo. Byzantine-Tolerant Distributed Grow-Only Sets: Specification and Applications. In 4th International Symposium on Foundations and Applications of Blockchain 2021 (FAB 2021). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 92, pp. 2:1-2:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{cholvi_et_al:OASIcs.FAB.2021.2,
  author =	{Cholvi, Vicent and Fern\'{a}ndez Anta, Antonio and Georgiou, Chryssis and Nicolaou, Nicolas and Raynal, Michel and Russo, Antonio},
  title =	{{Byzantine-Tolerant Distributed Grow-Only Sets: Specification and Applications}},
  booktitle =	{4th International Symposium on Foundations and Applications of Blockchain 2021 (FAB 2021)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:19},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-196-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{92},
  editor =	{Gramoli, Vincent and Sadoghi, Mohammad},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.FAB.2021.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-139883},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.FAB.2021.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Grow-only Sets, Distributed Ledgers, Blockchains, Atomic appends}
}
Document
Atomic Appends: Selling Cars and Coordinating Armies with Multiple Distributed Ledgers

Authors: Antonio Fernández Anta, Chryssis Georgiou, and Nicolas Nicolaou

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 71, International Conference on Blockchain Economics, Security and Protocols (Tokenomics 2019)


Abstract
The various applications using Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) or blockchains, have led to the introduction of a new "marketplace" where multiple types of digital assets may be exchanged. As each blockchain is designed to support specific types of assets and transactions, and no blockchain will prevail, the need to perform interblockchain transactions is already pressing. In this work we examine the fundamental problem of interoperable and interconnected blockchains. In particular, we begin by introducing the Multi-Distributed Ledger Objects (MDLO), which is the result of aggregating multiple Distributed Ledger Objects - DLO (a DLO is a formalization of the blockchain) and that supports append and get operations of records (e.g., transactions) in them from multiple clients concurrently. Next we define the AtomicAppends problem, which emerges when the exchange of digital assets between multiple clients may involve appending records in more than one DLO. Specifically, AtomicAppend requires that either all records will be appended on the involved DLOs or none. We examine the solvability of this problem assuming rational and risk-averse clients that may fail by crashing, and under different client utility and append models, timing models, and client failure scenarios. We show that for some cases the existence of an intermediary is necessary for the problem solution. We propose the implementation of such intermediary over a specialized blockchain, we term Smart DLO (SDLO), and we show how this can be used to solve the AtomicAppends problem even in an asynchronous, client competitive environment, where all the clients may crash.

Cite as

Antonio Fernández Anta, Chryssis Georgiou, and Nicolas Nicolaou. Atomic Appends: Selling Cars and Coordinating Armies with Multiple Distributed Ledgers. In International Conference on Blockchain Economics, Security and Protocols (Tokenomics 2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 71, pp. 5:1-5:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{fernandezanta_et_al:OASIcs.Tokenomics.2019.5,
  author =	{Fern\'{a}ndez Anta, Antonio and Georgiou, Chryssis and Nicolaou, Nicolas},
  title =	{{Atomic Appends: Selling Cars and Coordinating Armies with Multiple Distributed Ledgers}},
  booktitle =	{International Conference on Blockchain Economics, Security and Protocols (Tokenomics 2019)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:16},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-108-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{71},
  editor =	{Danos, Vincent and Herlihy, Maurice and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Prat, Julien and Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.Tokenomics.2019.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119695},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.Tokenomics.2019.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: DLO, Interoperability, Atomic Appends, Rational Clients, Fault-tolerance}
}
Document
Brief Announcement
Brief Announcement: Implementing Byzantine Tolerant Distributed Ledger Objects

Authors: Vicent Cholvi, Antonio Fernández Anta, Chryssis Georgiou, and Nicolas Nicolaou

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)


Abstract
This work provides a proper formalization for Distributed Ledger Objects (as first defined in [Antonio Fernández Anta et al., 2018]), when processes may be Byzantine. The formal definitions are accompanied by algorithms to implement Byzantine Distributed Ledgers by utilizing a Byzantine Atomic Broadcast service.

Cite as

Vicent Cholvi, Antonio Fernández Anta, Chryssis Georgiou, and Nicolas Nicolaou. Brief Announcement: Implementing Byzantine Tolerant Distributed Ledger Objects. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 40:1-40:3, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{cholvi_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.40,
  author =	{Cholvi, Vicent and Anta, Antonio Fern\'{a}ndez and Georgiou, Chryssis and Nicolaou, Nicolas},
  title =	{{Brief Announcement: Implementing Byzantine Tolerant Distributed Ledger Objects}},
  booktitle =	{33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)},
  pages =	{40:1--40:3},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-126-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{146},
  editor =	{Suomela, Jukka},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.40},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113476},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.40},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Ledger Object, Byzantine Faults}
}
Document
Computationally Light "Multi-Speed" Atomic Memory

Authors: Antonio Fernández Anta, Theophanis Hadjistasi, and Nicolas Nicolaou

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 70, 20th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2016)


Abstract
Communication demands are usually the leading factor that defines the efficiency of operations on a read/write shared memory emulation in the message-passing environment. In the quest for minimizing the communication demands, the algorithms proposed either require restrictions in the system or incur high computation demands. As a result, such solutions may be not suitable to be used in practice. In this paper we focus on the practicality of implementations of atomic read/write shared memory emulation in the message-passing environment. In particular we investigate implementations that reduce both communication and computation demands. We first examine the shortcomings of the best two (in terms of communication demands) known algorithms that implement atomic single-writer multiple-reader (SWMR) atomic memory. The algorithm ccFast proposed by A. Fernández et al., achieves optimal communication by allowing each operation to complete in one round trip, with light computation requirements. Unfortunately, it relies on strict limitations on the number of readers. On the other hand, algorithm OhSam, imposes no restrictions on the system, but provides operations that require one and a half communication rounds. In the light of these shortcomings, we present two algorithms that implement multi-speed operations with light computation, and without imposing any restriction on the system. In particular, algorithm ccHybrid adopts the fast (one-round) writes and makes clients to switch to a slow (two-round) mode whenever the system is congested. On the other hand, algorithm OhFast, pushes the responsibility of deciding for the speed switch to the servers. This allows the algorithm to utilize the fast operations, and the slow one-and-a-half-rounds operations of the algorithm presented by T. Hadjistasi et al., whenever is necessary. We prove that both new algorithms preserve atomicity. To evaluate the new algorithms we implement five different atomic memory algorithms in the NS3 simulator, and we compare their performance in terms of operation latency, and ratio of slow over fast operations performed. We test the algorithms over different: (i) topologies, and (ii) operation loads. Our results support that the newly presented algorithms increase the practicality of atomic read/write atomic shared memory implementations in the message-passing, asynchronous environment.

Cite as

Antonio Fernández Anta, Theophanis Hadjistasi, and Nicolas Nicolaou. Computationally Light "Multi-Speed" Atomic Memory. In 20th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 70, pp. 29:1-29:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{fernandezanta_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2016.29,
  author =	{Fern\'{a}ndez Anta, Antonio and Hadjistasi, Theophanis and Nicolaou, Nicolas},
  title =	{{Computationally Light "Multi-Speed" Atomic Memory}},
  booktitle =	{20th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2016)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-031-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{70},
  editor =	{Fatourou, Panagiota and Jim\'{e}nez, Ernesto and Pedone, Fernando},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2016.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-70980},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2016.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: atomicity, read/write objects, shared memory, operation latency}
}
Document
Making "Fast" Atomic Operations Computationally Tractable

Authors: Antonio Fernández Anta, Nicolas Nicolaou, and Alexandru Popa

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 46, 19th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2015)


Abstract
Communication overhead is the most commonly used performance metric for the operation complexity of distributed algorithms in message-passing environments. However, aside with communication, many distributed operations utilize complex computations to reach their desired outcomes. Therefore, a most accurate operation latency measure should account of both computation and communication metrics. In this paper we focus on the efficiency of read and write operations in an atomic read/write shared memory emulation in the message-passing environment. We examine the operation complexity of the best known atomic register algorithm, that allows all read and write operations to complete in a single communication round-trip. Such operations are called fast. At its heart, the algorithm utilizes a predicate to allow processes to compute their outcome. We show that the predicate used is computationally hard, by devising a computationally equivalent problem and reducing that to Maximum Biclique, a known NP-hard problem. To improve the computational complexity of the algorithm we derive a new predicate that leads to a new algorithm, we call ccFast, and has the following properties: (i) can be computed in polynomial time, rendering each read operation in ccFast tractable compared to the read operations in the original algorithm, (ii) the messages used in ccFast are reduced in size, compared to the original algorithm, by almost a linear factor, (iii) allows all operations in ccFast to be fast, and (iv) allows ccFast to preserve atomicity. A linear time}algorithm for the computation of the new predicate is presented along with an analysis of the message complexity of the new algorithm. We believe that the new algorithm redefines the term fast capturing both the communication and the computation metrics of each operation.

Cite as

Antonio Fernández Anta, Nicolas Nicolaou, and Alexandru Popa. Making "Fast" Atomic Operations Computationally Tractable. In 19th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 46, pp. 19:1-19:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{fernandezanta_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2015.19,
  author =	{Fern\'{a}ndez Anta, Antonio and Nicolaou, Nicolas and Popa, Alexandru},
  title =	{{Making "Fast" Atomic Operations Computationally Tractable}},
  booktitle =	{19th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2015)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-98-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{46},
  editor =	{Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Cachin, Christian and Potop-Butucaru, Maria},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2015.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66108},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2015.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: atomicity, read/write objects, shared memory, computational complexity}
}
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