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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

The family of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes plays a prominent role in the construction of quasilinear probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs) and interactive oracle proofs (IOPs) with perfect zero knowledge and polylogarithmic verifiers. The large concrete computational complexity required to prove membership in RS codes is one of the biggest obstacles to deploying such PCP/IOP systems in practice.
To advance on this problem we present a new interactive oracle proof of proximity (IOPP) for RS codes; we call it the Fast RS IOPP (FRI) because (i) it resembles the ubiquitous Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and (ii) the arithmetic complexity of its prover is strictly linear and that of the verifier is strictly logarithmic (in comparison, FFT arithmetic complexity is quasi-linear but not strictly linear). Prior RS IOPPs and PCPs of proximity (PCPPs) required super-linear proving time even for polynomially large query complexity.
For codes of block-length N, the arithmetic complexity of the (interactive) FRI prover is less than 6 * N, while the (interactive) FRI verifier has arithmetic complexity <= 21 * log N, query complexity 2 * log N and constant soundness - words that are delta-far from the code are rejected with probability min{delta * (1-o(1)),delta_0} where delta_0 is a positive constant that depends mainly on the code rate. The particular combination of query complexity and soundness obtained by FRI is better than that of the quasilinear PCPP of [Ben-Sasson and Sudan, SICOMP 2008], even with the tighter soundness analysis of [Ben-Sasson et al., STOC 2013; ECCC 2016]; consequently, FRI is likely to facilitate better concretely efficient zero knowledge proof and argument systems.
Previous concretely efficient PCPPs and IOPPs suffered a constant multiplicative factor loss in soundness with each round of "proof composition" and thus used at most O(log log N) rounds. We show that when delta is smaller than the unique decoding radius of the code, FRI suffers only a negligible additive loss in soundness. This observation allows us to increase the number of "proof composition" rounds to Theta(log N) and thereby reduce prover and verifier running time for fixed soundness.

Eli Ben-Sasson, Iddo Bentov, Yinon Horesh, and Michael Riabzev. Fast Reed-Solomon Interactive Oracle Proofs of Proximity. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 14:1-14:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bensasson_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.14, author = {Ben-Sasson, Eli and Bentov, Iddo and Horesh, Yinon and Riabzev, Michael}, title = {{Fast Reed-Solomon Interactive Oracle Proofs of Proximity}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {14:1--14:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90183}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.14}, annote = {Keywords: Interactive proofs, low degree testing, Reed Solomon codes, proximity testing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We study interactive oracle proofs (IOPs) [BCS16,RRR16], which combine aspects of probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs) and interactive proofs (IPs). We present IOP constructions and techniques that enable us to obtain tradeoffs in proof length versus query complexity that are not known to be achievable via PCPs or IPs alone. Our main results are:
1. Circuit satisfiability has 3-round IOPs with linear proof length (counted in bits) and constant query complexity.
2. Reed-Solomon codes have 2-round IOPs of proximity with linear proof length and constant query complexity.
3. Tensor product codes have 1-round IOPs of proximity with sublinear proof length and constant query complexity.
For all the above, known PCP constructions give quasilinear proof length and constant query complexity [BS08,Din07]. Also, for circuit satisfiability, [BKKMS13] obtain PCPs with linear proof length but sublinear (and super-constant) query complexity. As in [BKKMS13], we rely on algebraic-geometry codes to obtain our first result; but, unlike that work, our use of such codes is much "lighter" because we do not rely on any automorphisms of the code.
We obtain our results by proving and combining "IOP-analogues" of tools underlying numerous IPs and PCPs:
* Interactive proof composition. Proof composition [AS98] is used to reduce the query complexity of PCP verifiers, at the cost of increasing proof length by an additive factor that is exponential in the verifier's randomness complexity. We prove a composition theorem for IOPs where this additive factor is linear.
* Sublinear sumcheck. The sumcheck protocol [LFKN92] is an IP that enables the verifier to check the sum of values of a low-degree multi-variate polynomial on an exponentially-large hypercube, but the verifier's running time depends linearly on the bound on individual degrees. We prove a sumcheck protocol for IOPs where this dependence is sublinear (e.g., polylogarithmic).
Our work demonstrates that even constant-round IOPs are more efficient than known PCPs and IPs.

Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Ariel Gabizon, Michael Riabzev, and Nicholas Spooner. Interactive Oracle Proofs with Constant Rate and Query Complexity. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 40:1-40:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bensasson_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.40, author = {Ben-Sasson, Eli and Chiesa, Alessandro and Gabizon, Ariel and Riabzev, Michael and Spooner, Nicholas}, title = {{Interactive Oracle Proofs with Constant Rate and Query Complexity}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {40:1--40:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74713}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.40}, annote = {Keywords: probabilistically checkable proofs, interactive proofs, proof composition, sumcheck} }