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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 232, 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)

In the classical RAM, we have the following useful property. If we have an algorithm that uses M memory cells throughout its execution, and in addition is sparse, in the sense that, at any point in time, only m out of M cells will be non-zero, then we may "compress" it into another algorithm which uses only m log M memory and runs in almost the same time. We may do so by simulating the memory using either a hash table, or a self-balancing tree.
We show an analogous result for quantum algorithms equipped with quantum random-access gates. If we have a quantum algorithm that runs in time T and uses M qubits, such that the state of the memory, at any time step, is supported on computational-basis vectors of Hamming weight at most m, then it can be simulated by another algorithm which uses only O(m log M) memory, and runs in time Õ(T).
We show how this theorem can be used, in a black-box way, to simplify the presentation in several papers. Broadly speaking, when there exists a need for a space-efficient history-independent quantum data-structure, it is often possible to construct a space-inefficient, yet sparse, quantum data structure, and then appeal to our main theorem. This results in simpler and shorter arguments.

Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates. In 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 232, pp. 10:1-10:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10, author = {Buhrman, Harry and Loff, Bruno and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates}}, booktitle = {17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)}, pages = {10:1--10:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-237-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {232}, editor = {Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Morimae, Tomoyuki}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165177}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10}, annote = {Keywords: complexity theory, data structures, algorithms, quantum walk} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

Many computational problems are subject to a quantum speed-up: one might find that a problem having an O(n³)-time or O(n²)-time classic algorithm can be solved by a known O(n^{1.5})-time or O(n)-time quantum algorithm. The question naturally arises: how much quantum speed-up is possible?
The area of fine-grained complexity allows us to prove optimal lower-bounds on the complexity of various computational problems, based on the conjectured hardness of certain natural, well-studied problems. This theory has recently been extended to the quantum setting, in two independent papers by Buhrman, Patro and Speelman [Buhrman et al., 2021], and by Aaronson, Chia, Lin, Wang, and Zhang [Aaronson et al., 2020].
In this paper, we further extend the theory of fine-grained complexity to the quantum setting. A fundamental conjecture in the classical setting states that the 3SUM problem cannot be solved by (classical) algorithms in time O(n^{2-ε}), for any ε > 0. We formulate an analogous conjecture, the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture, which states that there exist no sublinear O(n^{1-ε})-time quantum algorithms for the 3SUM problem.
Based on the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture, we show new lower-bounds on the time complexity of quantum algorithms for several computational problems. Most of our lower-bounds are optimal, in that they match known upper-bounds, and hence they imply tight limits on the quantum speedup that is possible for these problems.
These results are proven by adapting to the quantum setting known classical fine-grained reductions from the 3SUM problem. This adaptation is not trivial, however, since the original classical reductions require pre-processing the input in various ways, e.g. by sorting it according to some order, and this pre-processing (provably) cannot be done in sublinear quantum time.
We overcome this bottleneck by combining a quantum walk with a classical dynamic data-structure having a certain "history-independence" property. This type of construction has been used in the past to prove upper bounds, and here we use it for the first time as part of a reduction. This general proof strategy allows us to prove tight lower bounds on several computational-geometry problems, on Convolution-3SUM and on the 0-Edge-Weight-Triangle problem, conditional on the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture.
We believe this proof strategy will be useful in proving tight (conditional) lower-bounds, and limits on quantum speed-ups, for many other problems.

Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. Limits of Quantum Speed-Ups for Computational Geometry and Other Problems: Fine-Grained Complexity via Quantum Walks. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 31:1-31:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31, author = {Buhrman, Harry and Loff, Bruno and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{Limits of Quantum Speed-Ups for Computational Geometry and Other Problems: Fine-Grained Complexity via Quantum Walks}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {31:1--31:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156273}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31}, annote = {Keywords: complexity theory, fine-grained complexity, 3SUM, computational geometry problems, data structures, quantum walk} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

The strong exponential-time hypothesis (SETH) is a commonly used conjecture in the field of complexity theory. It essentially states that determining whether a CNF formula is satisfiable can not be done faster than exhaustive search over all possible assignments. This hypothesis and its variants gave rise to a fruitful field of research, fine-grained complexity, obtaining (mostly tight) lower bounds for many problems in P whose unconditional lower bounds are very likely beyond current techniques. In this work, we introduce an extensive framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses, as quantum analogues to what SETH is for classical computation.
Using the QSETH framework, we are able to translate quantum query lower bounds on black-box problems to conditional quantum time lower bounds for many problems in P. As an example, we provide a conditional quantum time lower bound of Ω(n^1.5) for the Longest Common Subsequence and Edit Distance problems. We also show that the n² SETH-based lower bound for a recent scheme for Proofs of Useful Work carries over to the quantum setting using our framework, maintaining a quadratic gap between verifier and prover.
Lastly, we show that the assumptions in our framework can not be simplified further with relativizing proof techniques, as they are false in relativized worlds.

Harry Buhrman, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. A Framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 19:1-19:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19, author = {Buhrman, Harry and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{A Framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {19:1--19:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136642}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19}, annote = {Keywords: complexity theory, fine-grained complexity, longest common subsequence, edit distance, quantum query complexity, strong exponential-time hypothesis} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 111, 13th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2018)

We investigate quantum authentication schemes constructed from quantum error-correcting codes. We show that if the code has a property called purity testing, then the resulting authentication scheme guarantees the integrity of ciphertexts, not just plaintexts. On top of that, if the code is strong purity testing, the authentication scheme also allows the encryption key to be recycled, partially even if the authentication rejects. Such a strong notion of authentication is useful in a setting where multiple ciphertexts can be present simultaneously, such as in interactive or delegated quantum computation. With these settings in mind, we give an explicit code (based on the trap code) that is strong purity testing but, contrary to other known strong-purity-testing codes, allows for natural computation on ciphertexts.

Yfke Dulek and Florian Speelman. Quantum Ciphertext Authentication and Key Recycling with the Trap Code. In 13th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 111, pp. 1:1-1:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{dulek_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2018.1, author = {Dulek, Yfke and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{Quantum Ciphertext Authentication and Key Recycling with the Trap Code}}, booktitle = {13th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2018)}, pages = {1:1--1:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-080-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {111}, editor = {Jeffery, Stacey}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2018.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-92487}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2018.1}, annote = {Keywords: quantum authentication, ciphertext authentication, trap code, purity-testing codes, quantum computing on encrypted data} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 61, 11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016)

Instantaneous non-local quantum computation requires multiple parties to jointly perform a quantum operation, using pre-shared entanglement and a single round of simultaneous communication. We study this task for its close connection to position-based quantum cryptography, but it also has natural applications in the context of foundations of quantum physics and in distributed computing. The best known general construction for instantaneous non-local quantum computation requires a pre-shared state which is exponentially large in the number of qubits involved in the operation, while efficient constructions are known for very specific cases only.
We partially close this gap by presenting new schemes for efficient instantaneous non-local computation of several classes of quantum circuits, using the Clifford+T gate set. Our main result is a protocol which uses entanglement exponential in the T-depth of a quantum circuit, able to perform non-local computation of quantum circuits with a (poly-)logarithmic number of layers of T gates with quasi-polynomial entanglement. Our proofs combine ideas from blind and delegated quantum computation with the garden-hose model, a combinatorial model of communication complexity which was recently introduced as a tool for studying certain schemes for quantum position verification. As an application of our results, we also present an efficient attack on a recently-proposed scheme for position verification by Chakraborty and Leverrier.

Florian Speelman. Instantaneous Non-Local Computation of Low T-Depth Quantum Circuits. In 11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 61, pp. 9:1-9:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{speelman:LIPIcs.TQC.2016.9, author = {Speelman, Florian}, title = {{Instantaneous Non-Local Computation of Low T-Depth Quantum Circuits}}, booktitle = {11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016)}, pages = {9:1--9:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-019-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {61}, editor = {Broadbent, Anne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2016.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66909}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2016.9}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Communication} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

Catalytic computation, defined by Buhrman, Cleve, Koucký, Loff and Speelman (STOC 2014), is a space-bounded computation where in addition to our working memory we have an exponentially larger auxiliary memory which is full; the auxiliary memory may be used throughout the computation, but it must be restored to its initial content by the end of the computation.
Motivated by the surprising power of this model, we set out to study the non-deterministic version of catalytic computation. We establish that non-deterministic catalytic log-space is contained in ZPP, which is the same bound known for its deterministic counterpart, and we prove that non-deterministic catalytic space is closed under complement (under a standard derandomization assumption). Furthermore, we establish hierarchy theorems for non-deterministic and deterministic catalytic computation.

Harry Buhrman, Michal Koucký, Bruno Loff, and Florian Speelman. Catalytic Space: Non-determinism and Hierarchy. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 24:1-24:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.24, author = {Buhrman, Harry and Kouck\'{y}, Michal and Loff, Bruno and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{Catalytic Space: Non-determinism and Hierarchy}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {24:1--24:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57258}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.24}, annote = {Keywords: catalytic computation, Immerman–Szelepcs\'{e}nyi theorem, space hierarchy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 44, 10th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2015)

We study two basic graph parameters, the chromatic number and the orthogonal rank, in the context of classical and quantum exact communication complexity. In particular, we consider two types of communication problems that we call promise equality and list problems. For both of these, it was already known that the one-round classical and one-round quantum complexities are characterized by the chromatic number and orthogonal rank of a certain graph, respectively.
In a promise equality problem, Alice and Bob must decide if their inputs are equal or not. We prove that classical protocols for such problems can always be reduced to one-round protocols with no extra communication. In contrast, we give an explicit instance of a promise problem that exhibits an exponential gap between the one- and two-round exact quantum communication complexities. Whereas the chromatic number thus captures the complete complexity of promise equality problems, the hierarchy of "quantum chromatic numbers" (starting with the orthogonal rank) giving the quantum communication complexity for every fixed number of communication rounds thus turns out to enjoy a much richer structure.
In a list problem, Bob gets a subset of some finite universe, Alice gets an element from Bob's subset, and their goal is for Bob to learn which element Alice was given. The best general lower bound (due to Orlitsky) and upper bound (due to Naor, Orlitsky, and Shor) on the classical communication complexity of such problems differ only by a constant factor. We exhibit an example showing that, somewhat surprisingly, the four-round protocol used in the bound of Naor et al. can in fact be optimal. Finally, we pose a conjecture on the orthogonality rank of a certain graph whose truth would imply an intriguing impossibility of round elimination in quantum protocols for list problems, something that works trivially in the classical case.

Jop Briët, Harry Buhrman, Debbie Leung, Teresa Piovesan, and Florian Speelman. Round Elimination in Exact Communication Complexity. In 10th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 44, pp. 206-225, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{briet_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2015.206, author = {Bri\"{e}t, Jop and Buhrman, Harry and Leung, Debbie and Piovesan, Teresa and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{Round Elimination in Exact Communication Complexity}}, booktitle = {10th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2015)}, pages = {206--225}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-96-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {44}, editor = {Beigi, Salman and K\"{o}nig, Robert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2015.206}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-55588}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2015.206}, annote = {Keywords: communication complexity, round elimination, quantum communication, protocols, chromatic numbers} }

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