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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

We show that the space-bounded Statistical Zero Knowledge classes SZK_L and NISZK_L are surprisingly robust, in that the power of the verifier and simulator can be strengthened or weakened without affecting the resulting class. Coupled with other recent characterizations of these classes [Eric Allender et al., 2023], this can be viewed as lending support to the conjecture that these classes may coincide with the non-space-bounded classes SZK and NISZK, respectively.

Eric Allender, Jacob Gray, Saachi Mutreja, Harsha Tirumala, and Pengxiang Wang. Robustness for Space-Bounded Statistical Zero Knowledge. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 56:1-56:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.56, author = {Allender, Eric and Gray, Jacob and Mutreja, Saachi and Tirumala, Harsha and Wang, Pengxiang}, title = {{Robustness for Space-Bounded Statistical Zero Knowledge}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {56:1--56:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188815}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.56}, annote = {Keywords: Interactive Proofs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We show that a decidable promise problem has a non-interactive statistical zero-knowledge proof system if and only if it is randomly reducible via an honest polynomial-time reduction to a promise problem for Kolmogorov-random strings, with a superlogarithmic additive approximation term. This extends recent work by Saks and Santhanam (CCC 2022). We build on this to give new characterizations of Statistical Zero Knowledge SZK, as well as the related classes NISZK_L and SZK_L.

Eric Allender, Shuichi Hirahara, and Harsha Tirumala. Kolmogorov Complexity Characterizes Statistical Zero Knowledge. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 3:1-3:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.3, author = {Allender, Eric and Hirahara, Shuichi and Tirumala, Harsha}, title = {{Kolmogorov Complexity Characterizes Statistical Zero Knowledge}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {3:1--3:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175063}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.3}, annote = {Keywords: Kolmogorov Complexity, Interactive Proofs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

One-way functions (OWFs) are central objects of study in cryptography and computational complexity theory. In a seminal work, Liu and Pass (FOCS 2020) proved that the average-case hardness of computing time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity is equivalent to the existence of OWFs. It remained an open problem to establish such an equivalence for the average-case hardness of some natural NP-complete problem. In this paper, we make progress on this question by studying a conditional variant of the Minimum KT-complexity Problem (MKTP), which we call McKTP, as follows.
1) First, we prove that if McKTP is average-case hard on a polynomial fraction of its instances, then there exist OWFs.
2) Then, we observe that McKTP is NP-complete under polynomial-time randomized reductions.
3) Finally, we prove that the existence of OWFs implies the nontrivial average-case hardness of McKTP. Thus the existence of OWFs is inextricably linked to the average-case hardness of this NP-complete problem. In fact, building on recently-announced results of Ren and Santhanam [Rahul Ilango et al., 2021], we show that McKTP is hard-on-average if and only if there are logspace-computable OWFs.

Eric Allender, Mahdi Cheraghchi, Dimitrios Myrisiotis, Harsha Tirumala, and Ilya Volkovich. One-Way Functions and a Conditional Variant of MKTP. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 7:1-7:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.7, author = {Allender, Eric and Cheraghchi, Mahdi and Myrisiotis, Dimitrios and Tirumala, Harsha and Volkovich, Ilya}, title = {{One-Way Functions and a Conditional Variant of MKTP}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {7:1--7:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155181}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.7}, annote = {Keywords: Kolmogorov complexity, KT Complexity, Minimum KT-complexity Problem, MKTP, Conditional KT Complexity, Minimum Conditional KT-complexity Problem, McKTP, one-way functions, OWFs, average-case hardness, pseudorandom generators, PRGs, pseudorandom functions, PRFs, distinguishers, learning algorithms, NP-completeness, reductions} }

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