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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)

It can be shown that each permutation group G ⊑ 𝕊_n can be embedded, in a well defined sense, in a connected graph with O(n+|G|) vertices. Some groups, however, require much fewer vertices. For instance, 𝕊_n itself can be embedded in the n-clique K_n, a connected graph with n vertices.
In this work, we show that the minimum size of a context-free grammar generating a finite permutation group G⊑ 𝕊_n can be upper bounded by three structural parameters of connected graphs embedding G: the number of vertices, the treewidth, and the maximum degree. More precisely, we show that any permutation group G ⊑ 𝕊_n that can be embedded into a connected graph with m vertices, treewidth k, and maximum degree Δ, can also be generated by a context-free grammar of size 2^{O(kΔlogΔ)}⋅ m^{O(k)}. By combining our upper bound with a connection established by Pesant, Quimper, Rousseau and Sellmann [Gilles Pesant et al., 2009] between the extension complexity of a permutation group and the grammar complexity of a formal language, we also get that these permutation groups can be represented by polytopes of extension complexity 2^{O(kΔlogΔ)}⋅ m^{O(k)}.
The above upper bounds can be used to provide trade-offs between the index of permutation groups, and the number of vertices, treewidth and maximum degree of connected graphs embedding these groups. In particular, by combining our main result with a celebrated 2^{Ω(n)} lower bound on the grammar complexity of the symmetric group 𝕊_n due to Glaister and Shallit [Glaister and Shallit, 1996] we have that connected graphs of treewidth o(n/log n) and maximum degree o(n/log n) embedding subgroups of 𝕊_n of index 2^{cn} for some small constant c must have n^{ω(1)} vertices. This lower bound can be improved to exponential on graphs of treewidth n^{ε} for ε < 1 and maximum degree o(n/log n).

Lars Jaffke, Mateus de Oliveira Oliveira, and Hans Raj Tiwary. Compressing Permutation Groups into Grammars and Polytopes. A Graph Embedding Approach. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 50:1-50:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{jaffke_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.50, author = {Jaffke, Lars and de Oliveira Oliveira, Mateus and Tiwary, Hans Raj}, title = {{Compressing Permutation Groups into Grammars and Polytopes. A Graph Embedding Approach}}, booktitle = {45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)}, pages = {50:1--50:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-159-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {170}, editor = {Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.50}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-127161}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.50}, annote = {Keywords: Permutation Groups, Context Free Grammars, Extension Complexity, Graph Embedding Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 53, 15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016)

We consider the convex hull P_phi(G) of all satisfying assignments of a given MSO_2 formula phi on a given graph G. We show that there exists an extended formulation of the polytope P_phi(G) that can be described by f(|phi|,tau)*n inequalities, where n is the number of vertices in G, tau is the treewidth of G and f is a computable function depending only on phi and tau.
In other words, we prove that the extension complexity of P_phi(G) is linear in the size of the graph G, with a constant depending on the treewidth of G and the formula phi. This provides a very general yet very simple meta-theorem about the extension complexity of polytopes related to a wide class of problems and graphs.

Petr Kolman, Martin Koutecký, and Hans Raj Tiwary. Extension Complexity, MSO Logic, and Treewidth. In 15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 53, pp. 18:1-18:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{kolman_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.18, author = {Kolman, Petr and Kouteck\'{y}, Martin and Tiwary, Hans Raj}, title = {{Extension Complexity, MSO Logic, and Treewidth}}, booktitle = {15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016)}, pages = {18:1--18:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-011-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {53}, editor = {Pagh, Rasmus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-60405}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.18}, annote = {Keywords: Extension Complexity, FPT, Courcelle's Theorem, MSO Logic} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 9, 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)

We study several canonical decision problems arising from some well-known theorems from combinatorial geometry. Among others, we show that computing the minimum size of a Caratheodory set and a Helly set and certain decision versions of the hs cut problem are W[1]-hard (and NP-hard) if the dimension is part of the input. This is done by fpt-reductions (which are actually ptime-reductions) from the d-Sum problem. Our reductions also imply that the problems we consider cannot be solved in time n^{o(d)} (where n is the size of the input), unless the Exponential-Time Hypothesis (ETH) is false.
The technique of embedding d-Sum into a geometric setting is conceptually much simpler than direct fpt-reductions from purely combinatorial W[1]-hard problems (like the clique problem) and has great potential to show (parameterized) hardness and (conditional) lower bounds for many other problems.

Christian Knauer, Hans Raj Tiwary, and Daniel Werner. On the computational complexity of Ham-Sandwich cuts, Helly sets, and related problems. In 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 9, pp. 649-660, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InProceedings{knauer_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2011.649, author = {Knauer, Christian and Tiwary, Hans Raj and Werner, Daniel}, title = {{On the computational complexity of Ham-Sandwich cuts, Helly sets, and related problems}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)}, pages = {649--660}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-25-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2011}, volume = {9}, editor = {Schwentick, Thomas and D\"{u}rr, Christoph}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.649}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-30514}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.649}, annote = {Keywords: computational geometry, combinatorial geometry, ham-sandwich cuts, parameterized complexity.} }

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