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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

Testing whether the observed data conforms to a purported model (probability distribution) is a basic and fundamental statistical task, and one that is by now well understood. However, the standard formulation, identity testing, fails to capture many settings of interest; in this work, we focus on one such natural setting, identity testing under promise of permutation. In this setting, the unknown distribution is assumed to be equal to the purported one, up to a relabeling (permutation) of the model: however, due to a systematic error in the reporting of the data, this relabeling may not be the identity. The goal is then to test identity under this assumption: equivalently, whether this systematic labeling error led to a data distribution statistically far from the reference model.

Clément L. Canonne and Karl Wimmer. Identity Testing Under Label Mismatch. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 55:1-55:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{canonne_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.55, author = {Canonne, Cl\'{e}ment L. and Wimmer, Karl}, title = {{Identity Testing Under Label Mismatch}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {55:1--55:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154880}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.55}, annote = {Keywords: distribution testing, property testing, permutations, lower bounds} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

Motivated by the question of data quantization and "binning," we revisit the problem of identity testing of discrete probability distributions. Identity testing (a.k.a. one-sample testing), a fundamental and by now well-understood problem in distribution testing, asks, given a reference distribution (model) 𝐪 and samples from an unknown distribution 𝐩, both over [n] = {1,2,… ,n}, whether 𝐩 equals 𝐪, or is significantly different from it.
In this paper, we introduce the related question of identity up to binning, where the reference distribution 𝐪 is over k ≪ n elements: the question is then whether there exists a suitable binning of the domain [n] into k intervals such that, once "binned," 𝐩 is equal to 𝐪. We provide nearly tight upper and lower bounds on the sample complexity of this new question, showing both a quantitative and qualitative difference with the vanilla identity testing one, and answering an open question of Canonne [Clément L. Canonne, 2019]. Finally, we discuss several extensions and related research directions.

Clément L. Canonne and Karl Wimmer. Testing Data Binnings. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 24:1-24:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{canonne_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.24, author = {Canonne, Cl\'{e}ment L. and Wimmer, Karl}, title = {{Testing Data Binnings}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {24:1--24:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126277}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.24}, annote = {Keywords: property testing, distribution testing, identity testing, hypothesis testing} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

A function f:{0,1}^n - > {0,1} is said to be k-monotone if it flips between 0 and 1 at most k times on every ascending chain. Such functions represent a natural generalization of (1-)monotone functions, and have been recently studied in circuit complexity, PAC learning, and cryptography. Our work is part of a renewed focus in understanding testability of properties characterized by freeness of arbitrary order patterns as a generalization of monotonicity. Recently, Canonne et al. (ITCS 2017) initiate the study of k-monotone functions in the area of property testing, and Newman et al. (SODA 2017) study testability of families characterized by freeness from order patterns on real-valued functions over the line [n] domain.
We study k-monotone functions in the more relaxed parametrized property testing model, introduced by Parnas et al. (JCSS, 72(6), 2006). In this process we resolve a problem left open in previous work. Specifically, our results include the following.
1) Testing 2-monotonicity on the hypercube non-adaptively with one-sided error requires an exponential in sqrt{n} number of queries. This behavior shows a stark contrast with testing (1-)monotonicity, which only needs O~(sqrt{n}) queries (Khot et al. (FOCS 2015)). Furthermore, even the apparently easier task of distinguishing 2-monotone functions from functions that are far from being n^{.01}-monotone also requires an exponential number of queries.
2) On the hypercube [n]^d domain, there exists a testing algorithm that makes a constant number of queries and distinguishes functions that are k-monotone from functions that are far from being O(kd^2) -monotone. Such a dependency is likely necessary, given the lower bound above for the hypercube.

Elena Grigorescu, Akash Kumar, and Karl Wimmer. Flipping out with Many Flips: Hardness of Testing k-Monotonicity. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 40:1-40:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{grigorescu_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.40, author = {Grigorescu, Elena and Kumar, Akash and Wimmer, Karl}, title = {{Flipping out with Many Flips: Hardness of Testing k-Monotonicity}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {40:1--40:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94448}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.40}, annote = {Keywords: Property Testing, Boolean Functions, k-Monotonicity, Lower Bounds} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 67, 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)

A Boolean k-monotone function defined over a finite poset domain D alternates between the values 0 and 1 at most k times on any ascending chain in D. Therefore, k-monotone functions are natural generalizations of the classical monotone functions, which are the 1-monotone functions.
Motivated by the recent interest in k-monotone functions in the context of circuit complexity and learning theory, and by the central role that monotonicity testing plays in the context of property testing, we initiate a systematic study of k-monotone functions, in the property testing model. In this model, the goal is to distinguish functions that are k-monotone (or are close to being k-monotone) from functions that are far from being k-monotone.
Our results include the following:
1. We demonstrate a separation between testing k-monotonicity and testing monotonicity, on the hypercube domain {0,1}^d, for k >= 3;
2. We demonstrate a separation between testing and learning on {0,1}^d, for k=\omega(\log d): testing k-monotonicity can be performed with 2^{O(\sqrt d . \log d . \log{1/\eps})} queries, while learning k-monotone functions requires 2^{\Omega(k . \sqrt d .{1/\eps})} queries (Blais et al. (RANDOM 2015)).
3. We present a tolerant test for functions f\colon[n]^d\to \{0,1\}$with complexity independent of n, which makes progress on a problem left open by Berman et al. (STOC 2014).
Our techniques exploit the testing-by-learning paradigm, use novel applications of Fourier analysis on the grid [n]^d, and draw connections to distribution testing techniques.
Our techniques exploit the testing-by-learning paradigm, use novel applications of Fourier analysis on the grid [n]^d, and draw connections to distribution testing techniques.

Clément L. Canonne, Elena Grigorescu, Siyao Guo, Akash Kumar, and Karl Wimmer. Testing k-Monotonicity. In 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 67, pp. 29:1-29:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{canonne_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.29, author = {Canonne, Cl\'{e}ment L. and Grigorescu, Elena and Guo, Siyao and Kumar, Akash and Wimmer, Karl}, title = {{Testing k-Monotonicity}}, booktitle = {8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)}, pages = {29:1--29:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-029-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, editor = {Papadimitriou, Christos H.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-81583}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.29}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean Functions, Learning, Monotonicity, Property Testing} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

AC^0 o MOD_2 circuits are AC^0 circuits augmented with a layer of parity gates just above the input layer. We study AC^0 o MOD2 circuit lower bounds for computing the Boolean Inner Product functions. Recent works by Servedio and Viola (ECCC TR12-144) and Akavia et al. (ITCS 2014) have highlighted this problem as a frontier problem in circuit complexity that arose both as a first step towards solving natural special cases of the matrix rigidity problem and as a candidate for constructing pseudorandom generators of minimal complexity. We give the first superlinear lower bound for the Boolean Inner Product function against AC^0 o MOD2 of depth four or greater. Specifically, we prove a superlinear lower bound for circuits of arbitrary constant depth, and an ~Omega(n^2) lower bound for the special case of depth-4 AC^0 o MOD_2. Our proof of the depth-4 lower bound employs a new "moment-matching" inequality for bounded, nonnegative integer-valued random variables that may be of independent interest: we prove an optimal bound on the maximum difference between two discrete distributions’ values at 0, given that their first d moments match.

Mahdi Cheraghchi, Elena Grigorescu, Brendan Juba, Karl Wimmer, and Ning Xie. AC^0 o MOD_2 Lower Bounds for the Boolean Inner Product. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 35:1-35:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{cheraghchi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.35, author = {Cheraghchi, Mahdi and Grigorescu, Elena and Juba, Brendan and Wimmer, Karl and Xie, Ning}, title = {{AC^0 o MOD\underline2 Lower Bounds for the Boolean Inner Product}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {35:1--35:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63150}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.35}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean analysis, circuit complexity, lower bounds} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 50, 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)

We prove a non-linear invariance principle for the slice. As applications, we prove versions of Majority is Stablest, Bourgain's tail theorem, and the Kindler-Safra theorem for the slice. From the latter we deduce a stability version of the t-intersecting Erdos-Ko-Rado theorem.

Yuval Filmus, Guy Kindler, Elchanan Mossel, and Karl Wimmer. Invariance Principle on the Slice. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 15:1-15:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2016.15, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Kindler, Guy and Mossel, Elchanan and Wimmer, Karl}, title = {{Invariance Principle on the Slice}}, booktitle = {31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)}, pages = {15:1--15:10}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-008-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {50}, editor = {Raz, Ran}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58236}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.15}, annote = {Keywords: analysis of boolean functions, invariance principle, Johnson association scheme, the slice} }